Cross-cutting topic Corruption (ST-01)
What others say… • “Bribing foreign public officials abroad is a criminal offence in Switzerland.“ • (Swiss law) • “Corruption is the main problem for development in many countries of the world” • (An often heard sentence… ) • “Because of corruption children lie from the first day in school. • (Mexican proverb) • “The corruption of the best is the worst. ” • (Old Roman proverb) • “The fish rots from the head.” • (Corruption starts from the top – the key decision maker) • (saying in many countries) • … what do you say?
What is corruption? Definition: Corruption is the abuse of entrusted power for private gain and unfair advantages. Two sides of corruption beingcorrupted corrupting someone else
Where does corruption begin? • Corruption can range from a little favor in expectation of a future advantage, a little baksheesh all the way to the payment of a large amount of money to members of institutions.
Why fighting corruption? Social and political reasons Access to public services is distorted Decisions are not taken for the benefit of the public Rule of law and morale values are undermined Loss of confidence in public institutions Economic reasons Funds are wasted Confidence of investors is endangered Competition is distorted, inefficient distribution of resources General loss of morale values within an institution Organizational reasons Corruption leads to lay open to being blackmailed
Warning signs • Organizational procedures • Deficient administrative and supervisory resources • Badly defined responsibilities and authority • Operational procedures • Extensive delays and/or irregularities in operational reports • Major, causeless quitting of operational plans • Anomalies in procurement systems • Financial procedures • Not transparent and badly organized bookkeeping • Irregularities in financial reports and audits • Extremely high budgets in relation to the planned activities • Unexplained changes to the accounting procedures • Abnormal short- or long-term payments • Personnel procedures • Contempt of internal orders and rules • Incongruous commissions and/or salaries • Luxurious lifestyle, favoritism, personal dependency
Major players in preventing and fighting corruption Public service Legislature Executive Jurisdiction „Watchdog“ agencies Civil society Public awareness Private sector Society‘s values International actors Media
Take appropriate measures against corruption Organizationalmeasures Transparent procedures and practices Clear responsibilities and job description Introduce dual control and counter-signature-systems Add an integrity Pact and „conflict of interest rules“ Measures relating to staff /management Rise awareness of consequences of corruption Provide special training and hand out a “corruption”-checklist Implement a special contact person and protect „whistleblowers“ Try the best to pay appropriate salaries Make inspections and random tests Supervisory measures Evaluate occurred problems Strengthen the message that corruption has consequences Establish an anti-corruption agency