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Securing the Republic

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  1. SecuringtheRepublic The Federalist Administrations 1788 - 1800

  2. Hamilton’s Plan(Funding & Assumption) • 1. Establish nation’s credit-worthiness • Pay off, at full face value, debt inherited from Am.Rev. • Pay off state debts from war • 2. Creation of a new national debt • 3. Create Bank of the United States • 4. Raise revenue by taxing whiskey • 5. Establish protective tariff to protect fledgling industries

  3. The Famous “Dinner Deal” Participants: • Alexander Hamilton • James Madison • Thomas Jefferson Key Points: • Madison pledged to get enough votes to pass “funding & assumption” • Hamilton agreed to move national capital south to the Potomac River • States that had already retired war debt would receive federal grants as compensation

  4. American Reactions to the French Revolution French supporters (Jefferson) • Despite its excesses, saw the Fr. Rev as a triumph for popular self- government • Argued it had to be defended & supported at all costs • Treaty of Alliance (1788) French detractors (Washington, Hamilton) • Saw anarchy, not self-government • Felt US had to draw closer to Britain • Declared neutrality

  5. Jay’s Treaty(1794) No British concessions on: • Impressments • Rights of American shipping Britain agreed to abandon western outposts • As previously agreed to in 1783 US granted favored treatment to British imported goods In effect, cancelled 1788 Treaty of Alliance w/ France Recognized British economic and naval supremacy

  6. Emergence of the First Party System Federalists • Supported Washington • Favored close ties with Britain • Favored Hamilton’s economic program • Merchants, farmers, lawyers, established political leaders • Elitist in outlook • Favored a liberal interpretation of the Constitution meant to “energize” the federal government Republicans (no relation to present Republican Party) • Led by Madison & Jefferson • Favored close ties with France • Wealthy southern planters, yeoman farmers, urban artisans • Critical of social and economic inequality • Supported broad democratic participation • Favored a strict interpretation of the Constitution meant to limit the federal government

  7. The Election of 1796 Federalists • John Adams for President • Thomas Pinckney for Vice-President Republicans • Thomas Jefferson for President • Aaron Burr for Vice-President

  8. The Election of 1796 • John Adams Thomas Jefferson

  9. Crisis: Domestic and Foreign Domestic • Fries’ Rebellion • Alien & Sedition Acts Foreign • British & French violations of US neutral rights • XYZ Affair • “Quasi-war” with France

  10. First US Naval Ships USS Constellation USS President USS Congress USS Chesapeake USS United States USS Constitution – Old Ironsides

  11. The Alien & Sedition Acts of 1798 Naturalization Act • two previous bills passed in 1790 & 1795 • increased residency requirement for citizenship from 5 to 14 years Alien Acts • John Marshall’s letters from Paris • Alien Enemies Act – did Congress have heightened powers in time of war • Allowed deportation of persons from abroad deemed “dangerous” by federal Authorities • Republicans objected to the provisions for prosecuting citizens who concealed aliens or inhibited the enforcement of the act Sedition Act • Authorized prosecution of any public assembly or publication critical of government

  12. Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions • Kentucky Resolutions • Introduced by John Breckinridge though authored by Thomas Jefferson the sitting Vice-President • Adopted on 10 November 1798 by the House and 13 November 1798 by the Senate • Virginia Resolutions • Introduced by John Taylor of Caroline though authored by James Madison

  13. Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions • Described the Constitution as a Compact • The Constitution Enumerated the Powers of the general government • Powers not enumerated were reserved by the states • The Alien and Sedition Acts has assumed undelegated powers that should be left to the states • Declared the Alien and Sedition Acts void

  14. Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions • None of the states responded positively to the resolutions • Seven of nine states north of the Potomac put their objections in writing and forwarded them to Kentucky and Virginia • Most – controlled by Federalists and in the High Federalist Tradition – rebuked Kentucky and Virginia • Most state legislatures feared the resolutions, if accepted and approved would tear the union apart