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MODULE 5. Material Handling. Material Handling. Material handling equipment: all equipment that relates to the movement, storage, control and protection of materials, goods and products. Aerial lifts - Forklifts Bulk material handlers - Cranes Gin poles - Cherry pickers.
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Material Handling Material handling equipment: all equipment that relates to the movement, storage, control and protection of materials, goods and products. • Aerial lifts - Forklifts • Bulk material handlers - Cranes • Gin poles - Cherry pickers
Material Handling • Before using any type of equipment it is required that you be: • Trained on that specific type of equipment. • Certified • Authorized • A pre-operation inspection shall also be conducted before starting the equipment. • Inspections must take place at least daily at the beginning of each shift. • Unsafe equipment must be removed from service and reporter
Material Handling • Any powered industrial truck not in safe operating condition shall be removed from service. All repairs shall be made by authorized personnel. (29 CFR 1910.178 (q)(1))
Material Handling • Forklift safety • Driving characteristics are different then a car. • The center of gravity can be moved by: • Traveling with an elevated load • Load too heavy • Fast turns • A hill or incline • Starting or stopping too fast • Jerky operation of the hydraulics
Material Handling • Forklift safety • No unauthorized drivers • No daydreaming • Poor forward visibility • Forks or loads kept low • Operate at reasonable speed, no speeding • No Horseplay • Allow three truck lengths when following • Assume overhead lines are energized
Material Handling • Cranes: • A lifting machine, generally equipped with a winder or wire rope drum, wire ropes or chains and sheaves that can be used to lift and lower materials and to move horizontally.
Material Handling • Types of cranes: • Truck mounted • Side-lift • Rough terrain • All terrain • Crawler crane
Material Handling • Rigging: • The equipment and method used in lifting, pulling, or tying down an object. • Always make sure to use rigging designed specifically for lifting. • Tag Lines: • Used to position load • Attach before load is lifted • Never wrap around body parts • Non-conductive poly material • Clean and free of knots
Material Handling • Hand tools • Use proper tool for the job • Wear correct PPE • Inspect prior to use • Never use broken or damaged hand tools • Power tools • Properly insulated and grounded • No alteration or modification • Never remove/modify guards
Material Handling • Cheater Bar / Pipe • An engineer designed and tested handle extension used to free items that are hard to remove with a ratchet or wrench alone or to operate valves. • NOT A HOMEMADE DEVICE • Not recommended, used only as a last resort • Can’t be more then twice the length of wrench or handle
Material Handling • Problems in using a handle extension: • If the component frees suddenly the worker can become a projectile that is propelled. • The cheater bar itself can become part of a catapult with the worker in the line of fire. • Use of such items can damage the component. • Falls, impacts, punctures and other injuries can occur from improper use.
Material Handling Back Injury Prevention • The back is critical in daily operations. It is used in every aspect of life. • After suffering one back injury, you are much more likely to experience another one later on. • More than 1 million workers suffer back injuries each year, accounting for 1/5 of all workplace injuries or illnesses.
Material Handling • Why back injuries occur: • Poor physical condition • Poor posture • Extra weight • Stress • Heavy lifting • Twisting at the waist while lifting • Lifting, carrying or working in odd positions • Sitting or standing too long in one position
Material Handling • Alternatives to Lifting • Use cranes, hoists and lift tables • Place objects up off the floor or ground • Raise/lower work surfaces when possible • Use carts and dollies to move objects • Get a partner to help you lift • Reduce the amount of weight lifted
Material Handling • Proper Lifting Techniques • Get a firm grip on the load. • Lift gradually keeping the load close to your body. • Change directions by pointing your feet in the direction you want to go.
Material Handling • Proper Lifting Techniques • Avoid twisting at your waist while carrying a load. • When you put a load down, use these same guidelines in reverse.
Walking-Working Surfaces • Slips, trips and falls can happen in any part of the workplace, inside or outdoors. • Slips and trips often result in falls and more serious outcomes, including disabling injuries and even death. • The cost to both worker and employer can be great.
Walking-Working Surfaces - Housekeeping DO Return tools and parts to their proper areas. Keep tools and materials away from edges of platform. Stack tools on a flat surfaces; cross-tie them or cover them to keep in place. • Keep aisles, walkways, stairways and escape routes free of clutter. • Clean up spills immediately. • Prevent oil accumulation on floors. • Pick up trash.
Walking-Working Surfaces - Housekeeping DON’T Assume someone else sees the hazard. Lay tools and other materials close to edges, on railings or sills. • Leave spills for someone else to clean up. • Allow oil to build up on surfaces. • Allow trash to collect in corners, under machinery or other out of the way places.
Walking-Working Surfaces General Requirements: • Employees must be extremely cautious when working near and around: • Floor and wall openings • Stairways • Platforms • Ladders and scaffolds • All elevated work areas
Walking-Working Surfaces • General Requirements: • Always use handrails. • Avoid ascending and descending any climbing surface with awkward loads or without handrails. • Always have adequate lighting. • Always wear fall protection when required.
Walking-Working Surfaces • Dropped Objects: • Provide Adequate Warning: • If you are going to do work overhead warn those in the area: • Verbally • With signs • Ropes • Barricades
Walking-Working Surfaces Guarding: • Cover all floor openings, wall openings and holes to prevent tripping, falling or loss of tools. • Every open-sided floor or platform 4 feet or more above the adjacent floor or ground must be guarded.
Walking-Working Surfaces Guarding: • Do not use barricade tape or flagging as a temporary railing or fall restraint. • Never leave a floor opening unprotected. • Covers and/or guardrails must be provided to protect employees from hazards. • While the cover is not in place, the opening must be constantly attended.
Walking-Working Surfaces When we are talking about holes and openings, the following criteria is used: • Floor Hole: opening less than 12 inches but more than 1 inch. • Floor Opening: Opening larger than 12 inches.
Walking-Working Surfaces Scaffold Safety • Scaffolds are engineered systems used for elevated work and must be properly designed and assembled by qualified workers. • Guardrails and toeboards must be installed on all open ends and sides greater than 10 feet high. • Handrails on open ends and sides. Must be able to withstand at least 200 pounds. • Ladders or stairways must be provided for climbing onto scaffolds.
Walking-Working Surfaces Scaffold Safety • Employees shall not work on scaffolds during storms and high winds. • Slippery conditions, including ice and snow must be eliminated as soon as possible after they occur.
Walking-Working Surfaces Ladder Safety • Ladders must be inspected before each use. • Any ladder found to have defects must be repaired or tagged for destruction. • Inspect footing, rungs, steps, side rails, hinges and spreaders
Walking-Working Surfaces Ladder Safety • Maintain ladders in good condition at all times. • Maintain a 4:1 slope • Ladders used to gain access to roofs must extend no less than 3 feet from the point of support. • Do not use make-shift ladders.
Walking-Working Surfaces Ladder Safety • Never use a ladder in the horizontal position as a work platform. • Do not leave ladder unattended. • Always face a ladder when climbing up or down. • Always maintain 3 points of contact.
Walking-Working Surfaces Ladder Safety • Carry tools in a tool belt. • Keep your body centered on the ladder – use the “belt buckle” rule. • Do not use metal ladders near electrical equipment. • One person at a time on a ladder unless specifically designed for more.
Walking-Working Surfaces Stairways and Handrails composed of: • Steps • Landings • Risers • Handrails Requirements for handrail on stairways • 4 or more risers • Greater than 36 inches • Depend on stairway width • Provide adequate handhold • Withstand at least 200 pounds of force
Walking-Working Surfaces Stairways and Handrails • Safety rules • Use handrails • Keep clear of objects • Do not block vision with loads • Be alert to wet/slippery surfaces • Report damaged stairways
Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health • Occupational health hazards are a part of working in our industry. • Through training, knowledge and an understanding of the hazards, we can work safely in these environments.
Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health Industrial Hygiene • Industrial Hygiene is the evaluation of environmental factors through measurement of exposure intensity, exposure frequency, and duration. • A Hygienist is a person who by study, training, and experience can: anticipate, recognize, evaluate and control workplace environmental hazards.
Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health Hazards • Air contaminates: • dusts, fumes, mists, aerosols and fibers. • Chemical agents: • solids, liquids, gases, mists, dust, fumes and vapors. • Biological hazards: • viruses, fungi, and other living organisms.
Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health Hazards (continued) • Physical hazards: • excessive levels of ionizing and non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation, noise, vibration, illumination, and temperature. • Ergonomic hazards: • including but not limited to lifting, holding, pushing, walking, and reaching.
Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health • Lead is a heavy metal • It can be found in pipes, cable sheaths, batteries, bullets, paint, gasoline and solder. • In certain doses, lead can be a toxic substance when absorbed into your body.
Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health • Typical work activities which may generate lead exposure: • Welding • Buffing • Grinding • Torch cutting • Sand blasting on coated surfaces
Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health • Lead is a heavy metal that can enter the body through inhalation or ingestion. • Symptoms of over-exposure: • Headaches • Fatigue • Anemia • Irritability • Muscle and joint pain • Stomach cramps
Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health • Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon that occurs naturally in petroleum crude oils and natural gas condensates. • Benzene concentrations are usually greater in lighter crude oils and condensates. • Under normal operating conditions, benzene should not be present in hazardous airborne concentrations.
Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health Benzene • Acute health effects: • Headache • Dizziness • Drowsiness • Respiratory irritation • Chronic health effects: • Cancer of the blood forming organs (leukemia).
Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health Benzene can be detected by: • Odor – aromatic, slightly sweet odor. • Physical symptoms – acute and chronic health effects. • Gas monitor – fixed monitor or personal. If you suspect a benzene spill or leak, vacate the area immediately and notify the appropriate personnel.
Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health • Carbon Dioxide gas is formed from the combination of two elements: carbon and oxygen. • It is produced from the fermentation of liquids and breathing by humans and animals. • It cannot sustain life.
Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) • NORM is a broad group of radioactive substances found naturally in our environment. • Crude oil, natural gas, and other substances extracted from the ground may be found to possess measurable levels of radioactivity. • Exposure occurs when the radioactive materials become airborne.
Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health • The primary hazard is not the exposure to NORM but when these materials are taken into the body through: • Breathing • Eating • Open cuts and wounds