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Semantics: The meanings of language. Deny A. Kwary http://www.kwary.net Airlangga University. Lexical Semantics. Semantic properties: The components of meaning of a word.
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Semantics: The meanings of language Deny A. Kwary http://www.kwary.net Airlangga University
Lexical Semantics • Semantic properties: The components of meaning of a word. • Semantic feature: A notational device for expressing the presence or absence of semantic properties by pluses and minuses. E.g. baby is [+ young], [+ human], [– abstract].
Example (a) widow, mother, sister, aunt, maid (b) widower, father, brother, uncle, valet • The (a) and (b) words are “human” • The (a) words are “female” • The (b) words are “male”
Exercise # 1, A- D, pp. 222-223 A. The (a) and (b) words are “male” The (a) words are “human” The (b) words are “animal” B. The (a) words are [+ count] The (b) words are [ - count] C. The (a) words are “concrete” The (b) words are “abstract” D. The (a) and (b) words are “plant” The (a) words are “tree” The (b) words are “flower”
Lexical Relations (1) • Homophone: Different words pronounced the same but spelled differently, e.g. two and too. • Homograph: Different words spelled the same but pronounced differently, e.g. minute and minute. • Homonym: A word which has two or more unrelated meanings, e.g. club: ‘a social organization’ ; ‘a blunt weapon’. • Polisemy: A word which has two or more related meanings, e.g. bright: ‘shining’ ; ‘intelligent’
Lexical Relations (2) • Hyponym: Words whose meanings are specific instances of a more general word, e.g. isosceles and equilateral are hyponyms of the word triangle. • Metonym: A word substituted for another word with which it is closely associated, e.g. diamond for a baseball field. • Retronym: An expression that would once have been redundant, but which societal or technoligical changes have made nonredundant, e.g. silent movies movies silent movies
Synonym or Antonym Lexical Relations (3) • Flourish – thrive • Intelligent – stupid • Casual – informal • Flog – whip • Drunk – sober • synonym • antonym • synonym • synonym • antonym
Semantic Ambiguity • An utterance which has more than one meaning