SEMANTICS Maisrul English Department FKIP UNRI Maisrul@yahoo.com www.roelsite.yolasite.com
SEMANTICS • Linguistics is scientific study of language • Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication. • As a system language has two system - System of Sound - System of Meaning
SEMANTICS • Semantics is generally define as The study of meaning. However, to limit the scope and to make the definition more specific so… Semantics is the study of meaning of words, phrase, or sentences in the language. Or simply, Semantics is the study of linguistics meaning.
SEMANTICS COMMUNICATIVE FUNCTION OF LANGUAGE 1. Informational Function: Conveying information 2. Expressive Function : Expressing speaker/writer’s feeling and attitude
SEMANTICS COMMUNICATION FUNCTION OF LANGUAGE 3. Directive Function: Directing and influencing the behavior/attitude of other 4. Aesthetic Function : Creating an artistic effect 5. Phatic Function: Maintaining social bonds
SEMANTICS SEMANTICS AND THE BRANCH OF LINGUISTICS • Phonology • Morphology • Syntax • Semantics • Pragmatics Discourse Analysis • Sociolinguistics • Psycholinguistics Continue...
FORM, MEANING, FUNCTION LANGUAGE UNITS LANGUAGE SCIENCE INTERDICIPLINARY VIEW INTERPRETIVE MEANING/ FUNCTION TEXT/ DISCOURSE PRAGMATICS SOCIOLINGUISTICS PSYCHOLINGUISTICS SEMANTICS SENTENCE SYNTAX FORM/ LOGICAL MEANING MORPHEME MORPHOLOGY LINGUISTICS FORM PHONEME PHONOLOGY
SEMANTICS SOME VARIETIES OF MEANING Meaning Linguistic-meaning Speaker-meaning Language-meaning Idiolect-meaning Literal nonliteral Dialect-meaning Regional Social
LEVEL OF MEANING (Lobner,2002 Understanding Semantics) • Expression Meaning : the meaning of a simple or complex expression taken in isolation (1) I don’t need your bicycle the meaning of the sentence alone • Utterance Meaning : the meaning of an expression when used in a given context of utterance; fixed reference and truth value Sentence (1) that’s given two different contexts.
LEVEL OF MEANING (Lobner,2002 Understanding Semantics) • Context 1: the sentence I don’t need your bicycle utters by a man to withdraw his own former request to borrow his best friend’s bicycle for he has already got a motor bike instead. • Context 2: the sentence utters by a kid, John to his friend, Marry, in a picture card game. Marry has a bicycle card and wants to exchange it to John’s card which has a fancy car, John doesn’t want and say’ “I don’t need your bicycle”
LEVEL OF MEANING (Lobner,2002 Understanding Semantics) • Communicative Meaning The meaning of an utterance as a communicative act in a given social setting. One and the same sentence can be uttered with quite different communicative results In the context 1: the result is as the statement and thereby as a withdrawal of a former request. In the context 2; the result is as the refusal of an offer.
Sentence and Utterance Meaning Sentence meaning refers to what it is stated in the sentence. Utterance meaning refers to what it’s uttered by the speaker and also considered by when, where or how it’s uttered.
Sentence and Utterance Meaning • He may leave tomorrow He will leave tomorrow • “Can you shut the door?”
SEMANTICSUtterances and Sentences • An Utterance is any stretch of talk, by one person, before and after which there is silence on the part of that person. • An utterance is the USE by a particular speaker, on a particular occasion, of a piece of language: sentences, phrases or even single word. Utterances are physical events ex. “Hello” “Not Much” “How are you?” “Ahg” “Pxgotmgt”
SEMANTICSUtterances and Sentences • A Sentence is a string of words put together by a grammatical rules of a language expressing complete thought. Sentence is neither a physical event nor a physical object. • We are studying semantics • Where are you? • Who’s it? • She rolled up the carpet • She rolled the carpet up
SEMANTICSUtterances and Sentences, • Consider the following pairs of sentences:… are they difference meaning? • Harry took out the garbage Harry took the garbage out • John gave Mary a book Mary was given a book by John • Jane loves Tony Tony loves Jane • George danced with Alice George didn’t dance with Alice
SEMANTICS PROPOSITION, SENSE AND REFERENCE • Reference deals with the relation between the linguistics elements, word, sentence, etc., and non linguistics world of experience. • Reference of a word is the object designated by the word. • Sense relates to the complex system of relationships that hold between the linguistics elements themselves. • Sense of a word is the additional meaning attached to the word.
SEMANTICS PROPOSITION, SENSE AND REFERENCE • Proposition: A part of the meaning of the declarative sentence which describes some state of affairs. (1). Mohammar Khadafy is still the president of Libya. (2). The president of Libya is still Mohammar Khadafy. (3). Surya is the president of Libya
SEMANTICS PROPOSITION, SENSE AND REFERENCE • Sentence (1) and (2) has the same proposition. • Sentence (1) and (2) has true proposition • Sentence (3) has one proposition but it is false proposition
SEMANTICSPROPOSITION, SENSE AND REFERENCE • It makes sense to say that Utterance is in a particular accent, time and place. However, it would not make strict sense to say that a sentence is in a particular accent, time and place. • Propositionis part of the meaning of the utterance of declarative sentence which describe some state of affairs. • In uttering a declarative sentence a speaker typically asserts a proposition
SEMANTICS REFERRING EXPRESSION • A referring expression is any expression used in an utterance to refer to something or someone,i.e used with particular referent in mind. • The name Fred in an utterance such as “Fred hit me” the speaker has a particular person in the mind. So Fred in the utterance is a referring expression
SEMANTICS Could the following possibly used as referring expression? 1. John 2. My uncle 3. and 4. the girl sitting on the wall 5. a man 6. send 7. under yes yes no yes yes no no
SEMANTICS The same expression can be a referring expression or not depend on the context. 1. When a speaker says, “A man was in here looking you last night” is a man refer to a particular man? 2. When a speaker says, “The first sign of a monsoon is a cloud on the horizon no bigger than a man’s hand”, is a man being used to refer to a particular man? 3. Is a man in the example a referring expression? yes no no
SEMANTICS • Variable reference. The same expression can, in some cases, be used to refer to different things. Thus some expression in a language have more than one reference. • “Your left ear” (touch your left ear) (there’s something in your left ear) • “President of Indonesia” (in 1945) Soekarno, (in 2008) SBY • “President of USA” (in 2008) George W. Bush, (in 2009) Barrack Obama
SEMANTICS • There are cases of expressions which in normal everyday conversation never refer to different things. In this case the reference called Constant reference (always have the same reference) • The moon • The sun • The People’s Republic of China • The Republic of Indonesia • The United States of America • Etc.
SEMANTICS • In another case, there are two different expressions can have the same referent. • The Morning star and Evening star planet Venus • The Prime Minister of UK (1982) and The leader of the Conservative Party Mrs. Margaret Thatcher. • The Indonesian President (in 2003) and The Leader of Indonesian Democratic Party Struggle Megawati S. P • The girl who standing there is my friend.
SEMANTICS • An Equative sentence: Sentence which is used to assert the identity of the referents of two referring expressions that is to assert that two referring expressions have the same referent. • Mrs. Margaret Thatcher is the Prime Minister. • The girl over there is his daughter. • Mr. Barrack Obama is the President of United States. • A feature of many equative sentences is that the order of the two referring expression can be reversed without loss of acceptability. • His daughter is the girl over there. • The president of the United States is Mr. Barrack Obama
SEMANTICS • Are the following equative sentence? • John is the person in the corner • Elizabeth II is the current President of the USA • Tokyo is a large city • Dr Jekyll is Mr. Hyde • Ted is an Idiot • Yes • Yes • No • Yes • No