SEMANTICS Sense Properties and Stereotypes
ENTRY REQUIREMENTS • Are the following referring Expressions? (in normal circumstances) : yes/no 1. John in “John is my best friend” 2. It in “It’s sinking!’ (used in a conversation about a battleship which has just been attacked) 3. It in “Every man who owns a donkey beats it” 4. The man who shot Abraham Lincoln in “The man who shot Abraham Lincoln was an unployed actor” 5. He in “Everyone ever marries Nancy, he ‘s in for a bad time” yes yes no yes no
SEMANTICS • In order to talk meaningfully about anything, it is necessary to agree on the meanings of the words involved. This is a truism. • pls look at the book part: Sense properties and .... chapter 3... To sense (90 – 91). • The kind of meaning here is obviously the kind associated with words and sentenses by the language system, and not the speaker meaning or utterance made by a peaker on particular occasions. • The Sense of an expression is its indenspensable hard core of meaning.
SEMANTICS • The sense of an expression can be thought of as the sum of its sense properties and sense of expressions. • There are threeimportant sense properties of sentences. • Analytic • Synthetic • Contradictory • Analytic sentence is one that is necessarily True as a result of the sense of the words in it. • Synthetic sentence is onewhich is NOT analytic, but may be either true or false, depending on the way the world is.
SEMANTICS • An Analytic Sentence is one that is necessarily TRUE as a result of the senses of the words in it. • A dog is an animal • All elephants are animal • A Synthetic sentence is one which is not analytic, but may be either true or false depending on the way the world is • John is from England Book practice!!!
SEMANTICS • Contradiction is a sentence that is necessarily False, as a result of the senses of the worlds in it. Thus a contradiction is in a way the opposite of an analytic sentence. • This animal is a vegetable • book practice
SEMANTICS • Streotype of a predicate is a list of typical characteristics of things to which the predicate may be applied. Book