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Semantics

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Semantics

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  1. Semantics LELE| HUI MIN JING YI|XIAO QIAN|IAN Brought to you by Team Daisy

  2. Task 1: Denotation Vs. Referents

  3. Denotations literal meaning of the word. Speakers of the same language usually have the same understanding • Referents  Tied to situations; usually changes. Often something you can point at or mental images, using as references. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  4. The President of United States Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  5. We are only referents! Something that you can see, point at and make references. • The President of United States Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  6. The President of United States Denotation: The elected head of the country, United States Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  7. b) The capital of Canada Referents: Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  8. b) The capital of Canada Denotation: A state where the government of Canada functions in Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  9. c) The woman who walked on the moon Referents: Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END The first woman who went to the moon Girl’s failed attempt at moonwalking

  10. c) The woman who walked on the moon Denotations: A female who went out of space, landed on the moon, and walked. (not a particular/specific woman, but any woman) Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  11. c) The woman who walked on the moon Denotations: A female who went out of space, landed on the moon, and walked. (not a particular/specific woman, but any woman) Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  12. d) My linguist professor Referents:Dr. Yosuke Sato @ NUS Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  13. d) My linguist professor Denotation: • Someone who teaches me the science of a language • Someone’s lectures on science of language that I attend Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  14. Task 2: Metaphors we live by

  15. Determine the basis for each of the metaphors B) The eye of a needle the foot of the bed The hands of the clock The arm of a chair Describe parts of an object in terms of human body components Target: parts of an object Source: human body components Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  16. Determine the basis for each of the metaphors C) This lecture is easy to digest He just eats up the lecturer’s words. Chew on this thought for awhile. Listen to this juicy pieceof gossip. Describe information in terms of food Target:information Source: food Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  17. Determine the basis for each of the metaphors D) Your claims are indefensible. He shot down all my arguments His criticisms were right on target. If you use that strategy, he’ll wipe you out. I demolished his argument. He attacked every weak point in my argument. Describe arguments in terms of war Target: arguments Source: war Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  18. Determine the basis for each of the metaphors F) He unleased his anger. Her anger was aroused. Your temper is ferocious. She was bristling with rage. Describe anger in terms of a dangerous animal Target: anger Source: a dangerous animal Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  19. Task 3: Local entailment

  20. Logical entailment DEFINITION: Proposition AentailsProposition B if the truth of A makes B necessarily true. i.e. If A is true, B has to be true. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  21. Logical entailment Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END The statement Hilary and Dana are married to each other entails Hilary is woman. Dana is Hilary’s spouse. Hilary and Dana are husband and wife. Dana is not single. Hilary and Dana live together.

  22. Logical entailment Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END The statement Hilary and Dana are married to each other entails Hilary is woman. Dana is Hilary’s spouse. Hilary and Dana are husband and wife. Dana is not single. Hilary and Dana live together.

  23. Logical entailment Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END The statement Hilary and Dana are married to each other does not entail • Hilary is woman. • being married to each other does not indicate their respective gender • Hilary and Dana are husband and wife. • being married to each other does not guarantee that there is a husband and a wife in the marriage. exceptions: homosexual marriages • Hilary and Dana live together.  they can be married but live in different places, in different countries at the moment

  24. Logical entailment Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END The statement Hilary and Dana are married to each other entails • Dana is Hilary’s spouse. • If Hilary and Dana are married to each other, then Dana is definitely Hilary’s spouse. • Dana is not single.  If Hilary and Dana are married to each other, then Dana is definitely not single. Dana cannot be married and single at the same time.

  25. Logical entailment The statement Romeo kissed Juliet passionately entails • Romeo kissed Juliet. • Juliet kissed Romeo. • Romeo kissed Juliet many times. • Juliet was kissed by Romeo. • Romeo loves Juliet. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  26. Logical entailment Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END The statement Romeo kissed Juliet passionately entails Romeo kissed Juliet. Juliet kissed Romeo (Possible) Romeo kissed Juliet many times. Juliet was kissed by Romeo. Romeo loves Juliet.

  27. Logical entailment Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END The statement Romeo kissed Juliet passionately does not entail • Juliet kissed Romeo. • Romeo kissed Juliet passionately does not indicate any action on Juliet’s part. • However, B can be entailment if ‘kiss’ have a reciprocal meaning. • Romeo kissed Juliet many times. • kissing passionately does not necessarily mean kissing many times. • Romeo loves Juliet.  Romeo kissed Juliet passionately does not necessarily mean Romeo loves Juliet.

  28. Logical entailment Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END The statement Romeo kissed Juliet passionately entails • Romeo kissed Juliet • If Romeo kissed Juliet passionately, then he must have kissed Juliet. • Juliet was kissed by Romeo.  If Romeo kissed Juliet passionately, then Juliet must have been kissed by Romeo.

  29. Logical entailment The statement John shot Tom’s brother dead entails • John is a murderer. • Tom’s brother was a victim of violent crime. • Tom’s brother is dead. • John knew Tom’s brother. • John hated Tom. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  30. Logical entailment Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END The statement John shot Tom’s brother dead entails John is a murderer. Tom’s brother was a victim of violent crime. Tom’s brother is dead. John knew Tom’s brother. John hated Tom.

  31. Logical entailment Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END The statement John shot Tom’s brother dead does not entail • John is a murderer. • A murderer kills with malicious intent, but John might not have malicious intents while shooting Tom’s brother. (unintentional killing?) • Case where John is a policemen may also negate the fact that John is a murderer. • John knew Tom’s brother. • John did not have to know Tom’s brother to shoot him. • John hated Tom.  John did not have to hate Tom to shoot his brother.

  32. Logical entailment Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END The statement John shot Tom’s brother dead entails • Tom’s brother was a victim of violent crime. • B is not entailment as it may not be violent (Eg. Euthanasia, shot in the sense of needle poke) • It could also be a case of crime where John may be a police shooting down the criminal, Tom. The shooting may be voluntary and Tom can be an animal. • Tom’s brother is dead.  If John shot Tom’s brother dead, it must be true that Tom’s brother is dead.

  33. Task 4: presupposition

  34. presuppositions • An assumption. • A ‘hidden premise’ • An implicit assumption about the world or background belief relating to a sentence whose truth is taken for granted, so to speak. • An assumption which must be non-negotiable for a proposition to make sense. • *If required, you may use the negation test, where the negation of a sentence does NOT change its presuppositions. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  35. a) Identify the sentence that contains presuppositions;b) locate the word responsible for it. John regrets that Maria went to the graduation ceremony. John believes that Maria went to the graduation ceremony Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  36. a) Identify the sentence that contains presuppositions;b) locate the word responsible for it. John regretsthat Maria went to the graduation ceremony. • “Regrets” • The graduation ceremony must have had taken place • John knows that Maria went for the graduation ceremony • John knows the existence of Maria. John believes that Maria went to the graduation ceremony. • “Believes” • John does not know for sure if Maria went to the graduation ceremony or not. • John does not know if the ceremony that Maria went for is the graduation ceremony or another ceremony Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  37. a) Identify the sentence that contains presuppositions;b) locate the word responsible for it. The Captain thought that the ship was in danger. The Captain realized that the ship was in danger. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  38. a) Identify the sentence that contains presuppositions;b) locate the word responsible for it. The Captain thought that the ship was in danger. • “Thought” • Like “believes,” this word conveys an opinion about something that may not be true. • It may not be the ship that was in danger, but someone/something else • Nothing may in fact be in danger. The Captain realizedthat the ship was in danger. • “Realised” • The ship was in danger. • The Captain recognised the existence of the ship. • The Captain had received some form of indicator that the ship was in danger. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  39. a) Identify the sentence that contains presuppositions;b) locate the word responsible for it. It is significant that the criminal was sentenced. It is likely that the criminal was sentenced. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  40. a) Identify the sentence that contains presuppositions;b) locate the word responsible for it. It is significantthat the criminal was sentenced. • “Significant” • Signals that the criminal has been sentenced • The criminal was caught. • The criminal has been proven by the legal authorities to be a ‘criminal’ It is likely that the criminal was sentenced. • “Likely” • Like, “believes” and “thought,” this word indicates a suggestion, which does not affirm the actuality of events. • The sentence may not have been issued. The criminal may not have been sentenced. The criminal may not have been caught. The supposed ‘criminal’ may have not been proven guilty, or have been proven innocent. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  41. Identify the presupposition in the WH-questions Who killed Sylvia? • Sylvia is dead. • A person killed Sylvia. • A person called Sylvia exists. • The person that killed Sylvia exists. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  42. Identify the presupposition in the WH-questions Where did you put the cheese? • There is something called cheese. • You know the location of the cheese. • The cheese was moved by someone - ‘you’. • ‘you’ know the cheese I am referring to. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  43. Identify the presupposition in the WH-questions Why is there sadness in the world? • There is a concept such as sadness. • There is a world. (DUH…) • There’s a reason for sadness. Q1:Denotation vs Referents Q2: Metaphors Q3:Logical Entailment Q4 (A): Presupposition Q4 (B): Presupposition END

  44. Thank you.