semantics n.
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  1. SEMANTICS Referring Expression

  2. Semantics ‘’Semanticsis the study of meaning in language.’’ ‘’Linguistic semantics is the study of meaning that is used by humans to express themselves through language.’’

  3. Referring Expression A referring expression is any expression used in an utterance to refer to something or someone. The same expression can be a referring expression or not depending on the context. The condition which makes an expression can be mentioned as a referring expression when the speakerandthe hearer have the same perception of what is being talked about.

  4. Types of referring expression • -Genaric &Non –Generic or specific &Non specific refering • Ex: *Boys are ugly (generic non specific) • *Ahmad is ugly specific non generic -Unique & non unique refers to certain object . The word “sea”&” lake” refers to general object (non unique) ( he Medetrainian Sea& Tabaria lake (unique)

  5. -Concrete and abstract referent Concrete objects can be seen or touched and counted Ex :Door -dog-chair……etc. Abstract referent the idea the problem, the reason can’t be perceived through senses. Ex: virtue, problem, freedom -Figurative &Literal meaning Ex: I studied Shakespeare, The key to success (figurative) I met Shakespeare, the key of the front door (literal)

  6. Extension &Intention • The extension of lexeme is aset of entities which it denotes changeable • Ex: the extension of Dog, book include all types of dogs, books • Intention of any lexeme is the set of characteristics shared by all members of the extension • Ex everything that is denoted by the word lake must be a body of water

  7. Example • Book The word book has a real object or appearance in the world. Book Rose

  8. . • - Countable &noncountabl • Countable refers to items that are separate one • from another like apples, coins and chairs. • Non countable refers to numerous parts are not counted like virtue, beauty

  9. Indefinite Noun Phrase uses articles in its expression. e.g. -A girl who wore a black sweater is friendly. -Some apples are bought by my grandmother. -Five boys are playing guitar. Definite Noun Phrase uses proper name, personal pronoun and longer descriptive expression. e.g. -Rania is friendly. -She is studying Semantics. -The person who stole my bag is my friend

  10. prototypes • Aprototype:is an object or referent that is considered typical of the whole text and people have the same prototype for a particular group • Ex:cow refers to same thing to all people • Prototype related to cultural references

  11. The Relationship between Reference and Sense • Reference Concrete It can be proved by the thing in the real world and only one step to prove it. • Sense Abstract It does not have a real object and we have to imagine and compare to our experience. Every expression that has meaning has sense, but not every expression has reference!

  12. More Notions of Referring Expression • An opaque context is a part of a sentence which could be made into a complete sentence by the addition of a referring expression. Opaque context typically involve a certain kind of verb like: want, believe, think and wonder about in the form complete sentence, but we also can find opaque context in shorter expression. Because of those kinds of verb, it was often in the context that indefinite noun phrase could be ambiguous between a referring and a non referring expression.

  13. More Notions of Referring Expression • An equative sentence is a part of a sentence which could be made into a complete sentence by the addition of referring expression, but it is different from opaque context, an equative sentence is one which is used to make sure the identity of the referents.

  14. Thanks for your attention.Amnajamalhaboushserial No. 1 U.N.219976817