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Chapter 11

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Chapter 11

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  1. Chapter 11 Abby Kushner Alex Glavin

  2. Major threats to aquatic biodiversity Aquatic Biodiversity: - Occurs in coral reefs, estuaries, deep ocean • Higher near coasts than in open sea • Higher in bottom region of ocean than surface

  3. Human activities destroying • Trawling and dredging • HIPPCO • Introduction of invasive species - • 2004- United Nations declaration • Freshwater (dams)

  4. Invasive Species • 2008 study Nature Conservancy 84% of the world’s coastal waters are colonized by invasive species • Asian Swamp eel

  5. U.N. Environmental Programme – by 2020, 80% of the world’s people will be living along or near coasts • Only 4% of the world’s oceans are not affected by pollution

  6. Fertilizers- added nitrogen result in eutrophication of marine and freshwater systems can lead to algae blooms • Lake Victoria • Pollutants • Runoff from construction- chemicals can poison life • Plastic in the water

  7. Climate Change is growing threat • During past 100 years, sea levels risen 10-20 centimeters from global warming • Over fishing • Fish print • Commercial extinction • bycatch

  8. Fish harvesting • Trawler fishing- fish and shellfish on ocean floor • Purse seine fishing • Longlines • Drift net fishing

  9. How can we protect Marine Biodiversity • Reasons protecting is difficult • Human ecological footprint • Damage to oceans is not visible • People incorrectly view ocean as infinite supply • Oceans lie out of jurisdiction of any country • Leatherhead turtles • Exclusive economic zones

  10. The hope: • To establish a network of fully protected marine reserves which are put off-limits to destructive human activities in order to enable their ecosystems to recover and flourish • $12-14 billion a year

  11. How should we manage and sustain marine fisheries? • It will require: • Improved Monitoring of fish populations • Cooperative fisheries management among communities and nations • Reduction of fishing subsidies • Careful consumer choices in seafood market

  12. Estimating and Monitoring Fishery Population • Old ways of thinking • MSY- Maximum sustained yield • Hard to estimate • Negative effects • New ways • OSY- Optimum sustained yield • Multi-species management • Complex computer models

  13. Precautionary Principle • Sharply reducing fish harvest and closing some over fished areas until they recover and until we have more information about what levels of fishing can be sustained

  14. Some communities Cooperate to regulate fish harvest? • Costal Communities- Self Regulate • Norway’s Lofoten fishery • Co-management • Costal Communities • Regulate and enforces • Government • Sets quotas • Limits fishing Seasons

  15. Government Subsidies Can Encourage Over fishing • U.R Sumaila and Daniel Pauly • Governments : 30-34 Billion Dollars Per Year • 10-15 Billion dollars - Overfishing • 2007- World Trade Organization

  16. Government Subsidies Can Encourage Over fishing • U.R Sumaila and Daniel Pauly • Governments : 30-34 Billion Dollars Per Year • 10-15 Billion dollars - Overfishing • 2007- World Trade Organization

  17. Some Countries Use the Marketplace to Control Over fishing • IRTs- Individual Transfer Rights • Buy, Sell, Lease • TAC- total allowable catch • Problems • Private to Commercial- Public Pays • Squeeze out small companies- illegal fishing • TAC to high - 50% - 90% OSY • New Zealand 1986, Iceland 1990, U.S. 1995

  18. Consumer Choices Can Help to Sustain Fisheries and Aquatic Biodiversity • Bottom- Up Pressure • Sustainable Seafood • Labeling and Certification • MSC- Marine Stewardship Council • Wal-mart

  19. How can we protect and sustain wetlands? • To Maintain the • ecological services • economic services • We must maximize • preservation of wetlands • restoration of degraded and destroyed wetlands

  20. Coastal and Inland Wetlands are disappearing around the World • Human Harm • The united states - lost >50% inland and costal wetlands • New Zealand - 92% loss • Italy- 95% loss • Natural Filters • Lake Victoria- Uganda, Africa

  21. We can preserve and restore • U.S. requires a permits to fill in or deposit dredged material into wetlands • Cut loss 80% since 1969 • Mitigation banking - Zero Net Loss • Creating Wetlands

  22. Can We Restore the Florida Everglades?

  23. How can we protect and sustain freshwater lakes, rivers, and fisheries? • We must: • Protect their watersheds • Because: • These area are strongly influenced by the human activity on adjacent land

  24. Freshwater Ecosystems are under Major Threats • HIPPCO summarizes threats • 40% of rivers dammed or engineered • Threats: • Destruction • Pollution • Invasive species • Climate Change

  25. Can the Great Lakes Survive repeated Invasions by Alien Species

  26. Asian Carp • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yS7zkTnQVaM

  27. Managing a Big river is Complex and Controversial

  28. We Can Protect Freshwater Ecosystems by Protecting Watersheds • Land and water are always connected • We must protect lake from excess inputs of nutrients and pollutants • 1968- Nation Wild and Scenic Rivers Act • Wild Rivers- relatively inaccessible • Scenic Rivers- great scenic value • Building reservoirs and farm ponds • Protecting and Creating spawning sites

  29. What should be our priority from sustaining biodiversity and ecosystem services? • It will require: • Mapping terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity • Maximizing protection of undeveloped terrestrial and aquatic areas • Carrying out ecological restoration projects worldwide