Today: • Evaluations • Elections in Africa note • Brief summary for last time • Freakonomics chapter • Democracy: Romania vs. Russia • Discussion: polisci discipline
PR formulas • Two types of proportional electoral formulas: • Largest remainders (e.g., Hamilton) – non-monotonic • Highest averages (e.g., Jefferson; also known as d’Hondt in Europe) - monotonic
PR in Romania • In Romania, until 2004, PR for the Senate & Chamber of Deputies was a two-step process (see electoral law, Article 91, paragraphs 2-4/pp. 55-56, available at http://www.cdep.ro/proiecte/2004/400/20/0/leg_pl420_04.pdf )
“Giurgiu Paradox” • The 1996 results for the Senate (Giurgiu): PDSR 46,810 CDR 39,672 (35.37%) USD (PD + PSD) 16,680 PRM 6,833 PUNR 1,894 UDMR 269 (0.23%) (see http://www.kappa.ro/guv/bec/j-sen.html)
Who got the two Senate seats? • Giurgiu has two Senate seats • One Senate seat went to PDSR (the party received the largest number of votes in Giurgiu) • The second Senate seat went to UDMR (269 votes, or about 147 times less than the Democratic Convention); see • http://www.kappa.ro/guv/bec/p-sen.html
Alabama Paradox: • What is AP? When it did occur? Why? • What is monotonicity? • Two types of formulas (monotonic vs. non-monotonic) • Alabama Paradox, population paradox, new states paradox • Fix(es) to AP? How to prevent it?
Electoral Engineering in Chile • What were the bad news for the incumbents? • What were the good news? • What is the best electoral system in those circumstances? Why? • Did gerrymandering play a role in Chile? • Did the system work as intended? • Is it fair to call Chile a “limited democracy”?
Gerrymandering • What is gerrymandering? Where does the name come from? • What types of electoral systems are most conducive to gerrymandering? • Purpose? (three kinds) • Techniques? (types)
Simple example • A state (region, district, county, judet…) is entitled to three seats • Two parties (Dems & Reps) • We have nine neighborhoods, four with Democratic majorities, five with Republican majorities:
Limited Vote in Britain • Why was the Limited Vote introduced? • What were the two main goals of electoral reform? • Describe how Limited Vote works • What were the actual results? • Were the initial goals too optimistic? Why (or why not)?
Did Limited Vote achieve its goals? (i) Lessening the power of parties? • Not really; on the contrary, it led to the development of the Birmingham caucus (ii) Protecting minorities? • Did not happen in Birmingham; in Leeds, it led to a “tyranny of minority” instead • Aren’t the two goals mutually exclusive?
Where Have All the Criminals Gone? • Crime went up in the US for decades • Then it started to decline • Why? Not the strong economy Not the increased use of capital punishment: → “life on death row safer than on the streets” → not much effect, even if there is one (!?) Notinnovative policing
Nottougher gun laws • Not the aging of the population Did have some effect: • Increased reliance on prisons • Increased number of police • Changes in crack and other drug markets However, this is not the whole story Also Roe vs. Wade: changes in abortion policies/legislation How does Levitt go about proving this claim?
“X” → Democracy • (Economic) development • Predominant religion • Natural resources • Political culture • Mode of transition • Institutional design
Note: “democracy” • Respondents asked to rate the importance of democracy for them, on a scale from 1 (very important) to 10 (not important at all). • Thus, the lower the score, the more important democracy is for the respondent
Note: “Communism” • Respondents were asked their opinions about Communism (evaluate the regime). Available choices: (1) Communism is a bad idea (2) Communism was a good idea, but it was badly implemented (in Ro.) (3) Communism is good, and it was implemented well (in Ro.)
Soros Barometer, November 2007 • Questions: • Death penalty support (% support - % oppose) • Better to have two parties or more (% agree - % wanting one party or no parties) • Communism: % who thinks Communism was a bad political system
“Development” & democracy in Ro • Positive relation between wealth and education, on the one hand, and support for democracy, on the other • Wealth → democracy • Education → democracy
Modernization theory Economic development Social development Values (pro-democratic) Democracy
Religion & democracy • Protestantism → democracy • Islam → authoritarianism • Orthodoxy? Natural resources: • The “resource curse”
Ethnic diversity: Inimical to democracy (?) • Mode of transition: Violent vs. negotiated • Romania vs. Russia?
Romania vs. Russia • Development • Ethnic divisions • Religion • Communist legacy • Political culture • Mode of transition