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Braille Basics

Braille Basics

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Braille Basics

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  1. Braille Basics

  2. History of Braille • Developed by Louis Braille • 1809—Born near Paris, France • 1813—Lost his vision • 1819—Attended Parisian blind school • 1821—Charles Barbier introduced12-dot “Night Writing” • 1827—First Braille book published

  3. Braille Overview • Uncontracted (formerly Grade One) Braille consists of the26-letter alphabet, numbers, and punctuation. • Contracted (formerly Grade Two) Braille adds 189 contractions and short-form words.

  4. Braille Cell • All Braille characters are based on six dots called a Braille cell.

  5. A through J • The first 10 letters of the alphabet are made using the top four dots in the Braille cell (dots 1-2-4-5).

  6. K through T • The next 10 letters of the alphabet are made by adding dot three to the first 10 letters.

  7. U through Z • The last six letters of the alphabet are created by adding dot 6. • What happened to “W”? It was added later and does not quite fit the pattern.

  8. Braille Alphabet

  9. That’s nice, but… • How do we remember the alphabet?

  10. Braille and Print • You already know the print alphabet, and the Braille letters look like the print letters. • Let’s connect the dots!

  11. Standard Braille Alphabet

  12. Connect the Dots

  13. Numbers • Braille uses a special sign (dots 3-4-5-6) to show that what follows is a number. • Logically, this sign is called…the number sign!

  14. Braille uses the first 10 letters of the alphabet, preceded by the number sign, to stand for the single-digit numbers. “a” is 1, “b” is 2, “c” is 3, etc. through “j,” which is 0 Letters to Numbers

  15. 1 = #a 2 = #b 3 = #c 4 = #d 5 = #e 6 = #f 7 = #g 8 = #h 9 = #i 0 = #j Numbers in Literary Braille

  16. 12 = #ab 25 = #be 30 = #cj 46 = #df 51 = #ea 63 = #fc 74 = #gd 87 = #hg 99 = #ii 101 = #aja Multidigit Numbers

  17. More Information • Braille references • BANA • www.brailleauthority.org