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A Timeline on the History of Educational Technology

A Timeline on the History of Educational Technology

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A Timeline on the History of Educational Technology

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  1. A Timeline on the History of Educational Technology Created by Tawana Stiff EDUC 7100 Instructor: Dr. Abbie Brown

  2. Timeline Strands From 1900 to Present • Strand 1: Toffler’s Wave Theory • Strand 2: Technology • Strand 3: Work • Strand 4: Education • Strand 5: Society and Culture • Strand 6: Political

  3. Timeline1900-1910 Wave Theory: Agricultural Age/ Industrial Age The 1st Wave still exists but has been losing momentum to the uprising 2nd Wave since 1650-1750 toffler first wave Education: Learning Theories -Montessori Method -Pragmatism Methods of Instruction- Scientific and Reflective Problem Solving -adaptive schoolwork to accommodate individuality, sensory discrimination 1910 1900 Society and Culture People relied on radio, books, and sports for entertainment due to limited technology Multi-generational families and families with lodgers was common Simon Newcomb’s statement denying that flight would be achievable led Americans to doubt the capacity of future technology and resulted in very little attention to the Wright Brothers early on Work Farmers represented 38% of work force: Horse-powered farms becomes common in place of pioneer farms

  4. Technology Inventions: Air conditioner, lie detector test, radio receiver, compact vacuum cleaner, tractor, windshield wiper, instant coffee teabags Rise of the gas powered automobile…first Ford Model T Plastic is invented Timeline1900-1910 continued 1910 1900 Politics Race riots led to formation of NAACP in pursuit of social equality 1901 President McKinley is assassination by anarchist leads to Anarchist Act which allows for the exclusion of immigrants on the basis of their beliefs 1907 Expatriation Act: Women may lose American citizenship as a result of marrying a man of different nationality The Socialist Party of America is formed

  5. Timeline1910-1920 Education: Learning Theories - Pragmatism - Connectionism Methods of Instruction – self activity, individualization, motivation -adaptive schoolwork to accommodate individuality, sensory discrimination Politics World War I 19th Amendment grants women the right to vote Wave Theory: Industrial Age The 2nd Wave dominates 1910 1920 Society and Culture Self expression via radio programming for music/talk and extended to war communications The Flying Squadron of America promoted the temperance movement in the United States Work: Installation of the first moving assembly line at Ford Motors Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire results in the death of many women and girls due to unsafe work conditions Technology Vacuum cleaner, electric toaster, and refrigerator invented Poisonous gases utilized for chemical warfare for first time during WWI Mass production of vehicles and invention of the first electric starter motor by General Motors engineers

  6. Timeline 1920 -1930 Education: Learning Theories - Connectionism Methods of Instruction – self activity, individualization, motivation -Progressive Education movement influenced by John Dewey who advocated interactive learning Politics The 18th Amendment is passed - prohibiting the use or sell of alcohol results in rebellion The Red Scare arises as patriots fear communist will violently take over Wave Theory: Industrial Age The 2nd Wave dominates 1920 1930 Work Welfare Capitalism enables corporations to compete for skilled laborers by offering benefits and other incentives Decline in organized labor unions as a result of more powerful corporations The Stock Market crash results in economic depression and higher rates of unemployment : Technology Taylorism-based advances in machinery (e.g., assembly line)for the purpose of achieving unprecedented mass distribution Mass consumption of battery powered radios which could be utilized to hear broadcastings of news, weather, and political communications Society and Culture: The Sexual Revolution is elucidated by the female ‘Flapper’ who seeks social liberation for women Symbolic Interactionism affects views on individual roles within family structure, society and communication.

  7. Timeline1930 - 1940 Education: Learning Theories -Pragmatism -Learner Motivation Theories using behaviorist based stimulus-response methodologies Motion Picture Project of the ACE leads to more efficient and affective instructional techniques including films Wave Theory: Industrial Age The 2nd Wave dominates Politics The New Deal is passed by the U.S. Congress to offer economic relief and recovery Good Neighbor Policy institutionalized to promote positive relations 1930 1940 Society and Culture The Great Depression causes people to engage in books, board games and gambling to escape their sad realities The 1930s World Fairs inspired hope and forward movement towards a futuristic life style Social Realism as an artistic means of depicting social injustices Work: Workers are given the right to form labor unions and collectively bargain under the Wagner Act of 1935 Wages and Hours Act protects employees from being overworked and underpaid Technology The FCC designates part of the FM band for educational purposes The First Jet Engine is built

  8. Timeline1940 - 1950 Technology First atomic bomb is detonated and kills thousands of civilians Audio-Visual Devices utilized by military during WWII 99First overhead projector used in police identification work and then later for educational purposes Politics George –Barden Act of 1946 increases funding for vocational education Lanham Act of 1940-public housing for war workers is federally funded Wave Theory: Industrial Age The 2nd Wave dominates 1940 1950 Society and Culture The number of men participating in the war resulted in the increase of female workers in the labor force by at least 33% WWII raised environmental awareness an d people were encouraged to recycle materials that could aid in war production • Education: • Learning Theories • -Pragmatism • Methods of Instruction • Audio-visual (films, radio) • -Note-taking Work: Military Industrial Congressional Complex resulted in manufacturing companies receiving monies for production on war weaponry War Production Board limited and placed constraints on factories for the purpose of conserving war material

  9. Education: • Learning Theories • Skinner’s Operant Conditioning (Reinforcement) Theory • -Bloom’s Taxonomy • Methods of Instruction • -Curriculum/objective based instruction • Instructional Television • -Computers • Conducting Experiments • -Projects • -Watching Films • -Participating in class discussions • Timeline1950 - 1960 Politics Separate But Equal Doctrine is reversed, resulting in school integration Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 maintains preference quota system and places limitations on Eastern Hemisphere immigrants National Defense Education Act of 1958 Wave Theory: Industrial Age/Information Age The 2nd Wave begins to diminish as the 3rd Wave gains force 1950 1960 Work: Advancements in road construction allowed men to travel further to work (for higher wages) while wives took care of domestic duties (T Mechanical Machine for harvesting cotton lessens the need for manual labor in rural areas

  10. Timeline1950 – 1960 continued Technology The Soviet Union launched Sputnik which led to greater focus on Math and Science in schools Interstate Highway System built and expanded to allow for rapid transportation of war materials and provide evacuation routes as needed The Computer chip is invented 1950 1960 Society and Culture Great Migration: African Americans migrating north for factory jobs and pursuit of a higher standard of living. Nuclear family structure was maintained as a result of Baby Boom. Launching of Sputnik caused Cold War mentality in which Americans lived in fear of the Soviet Union’s technological superiority

  11. Timeline1960 - 1970 Politics Civil Rights Act of 1964 declares it unlawful for educational institutions to discriminate based on race Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1965 expands eligibility criteria for becoming a legal immigrant The Elementary and Secondary Education Act increases federal educational funding Education: Learning Theories - Behaviorism Methods of Instruction -Passive Learning and self-pace instruction based on stimulus response model -Individualized, Student-centered -Keller’s Personalized System of Instruction -Audio Tutorial -Computer Assisted Instruction -Formative and Summative Evaluations 1960 1970 Wave Theory: Industrial Age/Information Age The 2nd Wave begins to diminish as the 3rd Wave gains force Work: General Motors, Exxon, and Ford accounted for 12% of the nations manufacturing assets Average worker had an income increase of 50%

  12. Timeline1960 – 1970 continued Technology PLATO computer system developed for educational purposes Enhancement in Random Access Memory resulted in the production of smaller and more affordable computers Birth Control Pill approved Inventions: artificial heart, calculator, compact disc, valium 1960 1970 Society and Culture Conflict Theory The launching of Sputnik created a Space Race mentality resulting in many Americans choosing cohesiveness and collaboration in a patriot effort to move forward as a people Civil Rights Act expanded social progressive movements, heightened awareness, and inspired Hippie movement, anti-war protest, and feminist demonstrations by people pursuing equal treatment and freedom of self-expression Post-Vietnam mentality was “Make Love not War” Issues involving population control, energy, conservation, and environmental health lead to Environmental Movement The age of sexual freedom resulted in the eating disorder era as women tried to achieve a sexy look (e.g., mini skirts, thin bodies, etc.)

  13. Timeline1970 - 1980 Education: Learning Theories -Jean Piaget’s Genetic Epistemology Theory on child development -Behaviorist -Cognitive Methods of Instruction -Passive Learning and self-pace instruction based on stimulus response model --Individualized, Student-centered -Keller’s Personalized System of Instruction -Audio Tutorial -Computer Assisted Instruction Wave Theory: Industrial Age/Information Age The 2nd Wave begins to diminish as the 3rd Wave gains force 1970 1980 Politics Serrano vs. Priest highlights the inequity in schooling produced by property based funding Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972 declares it unlawful to deny individuals participation in educational program/activity based on discriminatory practices 1978 Proposition 13 1975 Education for all Handicapped Children Act Voting age lowered by 26th Amendment

  14. Timeline1970 – 1980continued Work: EPA regulates the use of asbestos in chemical plants Industrial decentralization involved the closing down of city factories (e.g., auto plants) which required workers to relocate their families Technology Apple II computers introduced in schools Inventions: Micro-processer, video game console, word processor, email, digital camera, pocket calculator 1970 1980 Society and Culture The “Single male breadwinner” family lessens as teen pregnancies and working women arise Vietnam resulted in anti-war demonstrations Earth Day celebrated for the first time as a result of raised environmental awareness Watergate scandal results in political cynicism

  15. Timeline1980 - 1990 Society and Culture The Aids outbreak and level of cocaine addiction resulted in an emphasis on safe sex/mass condom distributions and “Just Say No” campaigns since it was believed to come from immoral behaviors as such Divorce , single parent, and two-income households became more common Environmental Justice movement to address unfair placement of low income, minority communities Wave Theory: Information Age/Communication and Biotechnology Age The 3rd and 4th Wave coexist 1980 1990 • Education: • Learning Theories • Andragogy based on self concept, experience and readiness for learning • • Cognitive approaches used external behaviors to evaluate mental processes • • Methods of Instruction • - Activities for Storing and Retrieving information • -Metacognition (e.g., problem solving, journal writing),Self-directed learning, Direct Instruction, Individualized, Student-centered • ,Keller’s Personalized System of Instruction, Audio Tutorial • and Computer Assisted Instruction •

  16. Timeline1980 – 1990 continued Politics Refugee Act of 1980 allows refugee admittance to the country for humanitarian reasons Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 made it unlawful to hire illegal immigrants Department of Education Organization Act of 1980 increases the federal role in education Work Reaganomics results in tax cuts for corporations and leads to capitalization Labor surplus causes Labor unions to lose momentum and collective bargaining powers Increased immigration creates displacement in the American workforce 1980 1990 Technology IBM’s first computer for personal use Instructional Television (ITV) is accessible to 70% of teachers Classification and greater usage of various instructional media results from digitization and microelectronics Emergence of broadcasting communication systems (e.g., satellite, computers, interactive video, etc.) First computer virus First laptop computer Significant increase in use of micro computers in schools Inventions: Hepatitis B vaccine, Apple Macintosh, soft bifocal contact lens, synthetic skin, abortion pill, Prozac, HD television

  17. Education: Learning Theories -Constructivist -Behavioral/Motivational Methods of Instruction -Situated learning, collaborative learning, authentic problem solving -Emphasis on reinforcement, learner choices, self-efficacy ---Individualized, Student-centered activities (such as presentation or research papers) -Keller’s Personalized System of Instruction -Audio Tutorial -Computer Assisted Instruction Timeline1990 - 2000 Wave Theory: Information Age/Communication and Biotechnology Age The 3rd and 4th Wave coexist 1990 2000 Society and Culture 1999 Columbine High school shooting inspires schools to heighten level of safety and security The “Youth Trend” inspired by media icons results in frivolous spending and the desire for outer beauty. This was highlighted in the fact that over 65% of plastic surgery procedures were performed on people with a household income of $50k or less. Tanning, “youth serums”, weight loss, and health fads also become major part of society in this decade. And

  18. Timeline1990 – 2000 continued Politics Massachusetts Education reform Act results in common curriculum and high stakes testing programs across the nation Higher Education Act amendment requires institutions to provide report cards on teacher education Work: Growth in rural factories resulted in more jobs in the following industries: food, tobacco, textile, metal, chemicals There was a rise of infomercials as marketing corporations advertised “get rich quick” schemes, beauty products, and other items 1990 2000 Technology The World Wide Web is created White boards replace blackboards The First Smart Board is introduced Mozilla 1.0 is the first commercial web browser Inventions: web TV, Pentium processor, the Smart Pill, HIV protease inhibitor, Viagra Smart phone introduced

  19. Timeline2000 - Present Education: Learning Theories - Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence Theory Methods of Instruction -Experiments, word games, computer/telephone conferencing, dialogue, instruments, CD-Rom, multimedia, hands on, role-playing, graphics/charts ---Individualized, Student-centered -Keller’s Personalized System of Instruction -Audio Tutorial -Computer Assisted Instruction Wave Theory: Communication and Biotechnology The 4th Wave is prevalent in today’s society 2000 Present Politics Patriot Act established to tighten up homeland security 2002 No Child Left Behind establishes minimal school performance standards that must be met to avoid government take over 2008 Barack Obama elected as the nation’s 44th president is the first African American to hold this office ; an advocate of “Race to the Top” to improve schooling. Technology Inventions: AbioCor artificial heart, artificial liver, birth control patch, date rape drug spotter, hybrid car Stem cells created without the use of human embryos

  20. Timeline2000 – Present continued Work: Teachers retire at high rate as result of being stripped of Collective bargaining rights and fear of losing post-retirement benefits (e.g., Teachers) Projected depletion of Social Security funds due to Baby Boomers reaching eligibility age Over a quarter million teachers face layoff 2010 2001 recession results in the plummeting of factory work resulting in 1.3 million jobs lost Industrial robots utilized in plants to do work done by people in the past Decrease in median household income 2000 Present Society and Culture Al-Qaeda attacks on 911 create a sense of fear in the American people and causes us to question U.S. intelligence and capacity to respond to/prevent future attacks (2001) “Free Individual in a Free Society” has resulted in gothic appearance, sex changes, music and talk shows regarding controversial issues once considered taboo , etc. Fear of the apocalypse has shaped media, films, and even revived the “Carpe Diem” or live life to the fullest mentality Family structures: same sex, blended family, remarried, single parent toffler first wave