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Layers of the Earth

Layers of the Earth

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Layers of the Earth

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  1. Layers of the Earth

  2. Lithosphere Asthenosphere

  3. Earth’s Layers

  4. Earth’s Layers

  5. Crust (10-25 miles) Mantle 1,800 miles Outer Core 1,430 miles Inner Core 750 mile radius Inside OurEarth

  6. The crust is made of soil, water and rock. The mantle is iron and magnesium. The outer core is Made of nickel and iron. The inner core is made of nickel and iron. Composition of the Earth’s Layers

  7. The crust is 10-25 miles thick The mantle is 1,800 miles thick The outer core is 1,430 miles thick The inner core Has a 750 radius Thickness of the Earth’s Layers

  8. The crust is solid The mantle is part solid, part liquid The outer core is liquid The inner core is solid State of Matter of the Earth’s Layers

  9. 1. So how far away is the center of the Earth? • 25+1800+1430+750 • 4,005 miles • Is that the radius or diameter? • radius

  10. 2. The Lithosphere is made of the crust and upper mantle 3. The Lithosphere is broken into many sections or plates. 4. Some plates are lighter than others.

  11. 5. The lithosphere is made of two igneous rock types: • Continental crust - granite (light) • Oceanic crust - basalt (heavy) • 6. Because granite is lighter than basalt, the continents sit on top of the denser oceanic plates

  12. 7. Mantle is the largest layer over 1800 miles thick • 8. It is composed of mostly liquid rock that moves due to temperature differences • 9. 1800 degrees F at the top, 4000 degrees F near the bottom.

  13. 10. Outer Core-Very hot liquid metals 4,000 degrees F to 9000 degrees F • 11. Made of Nickel and Iron • 12. This liquid core produces a magnetic field that helps protect earth from coronal mass ejections (CME’s) produced by the sun.

  14. Protective Magnetic Field

  15. 13. In the Inner Core, temperatures and pressures are so great, the liquid metals are forced back into a solid despite the high temperatures that would normally melt them. • 14. 45,000,000 pounds of pressure per square inch. • 15. 3,000,000 times more pressure than felt at sea level.

  16. How do we know what’s inside? 16Geologists study earthquakes and volcanoes 17. Seismic waves caused by earthquakes change direction as they move through different materials(such as solids and liquids) http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/investigations/es0402/es0402page03.cfm Earthquake wave animation: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqarchives/year/2002/2002_11_03_waveani.php

  17. I’m going to dig a hole to _____

  18. Dig a hole to the other side of Earth http://www.ubasics.com/dighole/ http://www.livephysics.com/ptools/dig-hole-through-earth.php

  19. I’m going to dig a hole to China! • You will have to start in Chile, South America

  20. Will you make it to the other side? • If you could survive the temperatures (over 8,000 degrees F) and the pressure (3,000,000 times the force of gravity) and you could “climb” out the other side (down is towards the center of Earth), then YES! • If you could just freefall all the way through Earth (8,000 miles) it would take you about 42 minutes falling at 17,700 mph. http://www.daviddarling.info/childrens_encyclopedia/Dig_a_Hole_to_China_Chapter5.html