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Layers of the Earth

Layers of the Earth

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Layers of the Earth

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  1. Layers of the Earth Ms. Wood

  2. 4 layers • Crust • Mantle • Outer core • Inner core

  3. Inner Core • Solid • Dense ball of solid metal (definition) • Made of iron and nickel • 2,000 – 5,000 degrees Celsius (as hot as the surface of the sun) • Between 5150 km and 6371 km below surface of the Earth

  4. Outer Core • Liquid • Molten metal that surrounds inner core (definition) • Made of iron and nickel • 2,000 – 5,000 degrees Celsius (as hot as the surface of the sun) • 2,900 km to 5150 km below the surface of the Earth

  5. Mantle • Solid layer of hot rock (definition) • Lithosphere – uppermost part of the mantle; 109 km thick • Asthenosphere- layer of mantle below lithosphere that is soft and flows slowly • Solid mantle below asthenosphere

  6. Mantle cont. • Composed of silicon, oxygen, iron, and magnesium • Starts at 5 -40 km below surface; extends to 2,900 km • 2,200 degrees Celsius

  7. Crust • Layer of rock that forms Earth’s outer skin (definition) • Thinnest under the ocean and thickest under mountains • Two types: • Continental • Oceanic

  8. Crust continued • Between 5 km and 4 km thick/deep (avg 32km) • Composed of: • Oxygen • Silicon • Aluminum • Calcium • Iron • Sodium • Potassium • Magnesium

  9. Earth’s Layers Info • As you get deeper into the Earth, the pressure and temperature increase • Geologists – scientists who study the forces that make and shape Earth • Magnetic field – • Currents in liquid outer core force inner core to spin • This creates a bar magnet • Magnetic poles are near geographic poles, but aren’t the same • This is how a compass works