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BLACK HOLE PowerPoint Presentation

BLACK HOLE

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BLACK HOLE

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  1. BLACK HOLE Movie courtesy Wolfgang Steffen, University Guadalajara, Mexico

  2. QUASAR-MICROQUASAR ANALOGY QUASAR MICROQUASAR Mirabel & Rodriguez, Nature 1998 • The scales of length and time are proportional to MBH Rsh = 2GMBH/c2 ; DT a MBH • The maximum color temperature of the accretion disk is Tcol a (M/ 10M)-1/4  MICROQUASARS HAD TO WAIT THE ERA OF HIGH ENERGY ASTROPHYSICS BASED ON PHYSICS, NOT JUST ON MORPHOLOGY

  3. SUPERLUMINAL MOTIONS IN QSOs & AGN • OBSERVED IN ~ 30 QSOs & AGN • IN RADIO & OPTICAL WAVES • PROPER MOTION SEEN IN YEARS • Vapp UP TO 20c • WHAT IS THE NATURE ? • “PLASMONS” OR SHOCKS ?

  4. A SUPERLUMINAL EJECTION IN A mQSO AT THE TIME OF A SUDDEN DIP IN THE 20-100 KeV FLUX VLA THE PLASMA THAT RADIATES IN THE HARD X-RAYS IS BLOWN IN SUPERLUMINAL JETS l3.6 cm 1 arcsec Vapp = 1.3c DISTANCE = 12.5 Kpc

  5. Mirabel & Rodriguez, 1994 WITH SAME BULK LORENTZ FACTORS AS IN QSOs SUPERLUMINAL MOTIONS IN THE GALAXY • MOVE ON THE PLANE OF THE SKY ~103 TIMES FASTER • JETS ARE TWO-SIDED WHICH ALLOWS TO SOLVE EQUATIONS • BETTER AGN AT <100 Mpc. e.g. Collimation @ 30-100 Rsh in M87 (Biretta)

  6. GRS 1915+105: EJECTION EVENTS VLA (Rodriguez & Mirabel, 1999) Also with MERLIN (Fender et al. 01) BulkG = (1 – b2 )-1/2 ~ 5 Fireballs (Mezaros & Rees) versus Cannonballs (Daar & De Rujula)

  7. RELATIVISTIC ABERRATION IN ANTISYMMETRIC TWIN JETS Same bulk Lorentz factors as in QSOs: 2-10 Relativistic upper limit: D < 14 kpc

  8. RELATIVISTIC METHOD FOR DISTANCES IN ASTRONOMY FROM PROPER MOTIONS IF THE JETS ARE DOMINATED BY ELECTRON-PROTON PLASMA: FROM DOPPLER FACTOR OF ION LINES • IF ANTISYMMETRIC, THE VELOCITY, DIRECTION OF THE JETS, & DISTANCE TO THE SOURCE CAN BE FOUND. • BUT SPECTRAL LINES SO FAR DIFFICULT TO DETECT, • EXCEPT SS 433 WHERE H, He, AND Fe LINES ARE FOUND

  9. LARGE-SCALE JETS (W50/SS433) • VLA l20cm: (Dubner, Goss, Mirabel) • ROSATX-rays: (Brinkmann,Aschenbach, Kawai) 1o = 60 pc CHANDRA : ARC-SEC TWO-SIDED JET OUTFLOW (Migliari & Fender) Material half a year downstream is reheated to T > 107 K and re-accelerated ASCA: HADRONIC JETS WITH V = 0.26c IN THE X-RAYS Small scale version of Cygnus A ? POTENTIAL SOURCES OF TeV NEUTRINOS (Waxman et al.; Guetta et al.) >1016 eV protons interact with synchrotron photons  1-100 TeV neutrino emission

  10. RECENT HIGHLIGHT FROM CHANDRA(Presented at the fourth Microquasar workshop in Corsega…next in China) MOVING X-RAY JETS IN THE mQSO XTE J1550-564 (Corbel et al) • m = 21.2 +/- 7.2 mas/day Vapp = (0.34-0.93)c • Possible deceleration • Synchrotron spectrum

  11. ~20 mQUASARS IN THE GALAXY(Mirabel & Rodriguez, ARAA 1999)

  12. HORIZON IS THE BASIC CONCEPT THAT DEFINES A “BLACK HOLE” But because an horizon cannot be “seen” or “touch” it is not possible to “demonstrate” the existence of a black hole…however during simultaneous multiwavelength observations we found… A STRIKING ABSCENCE OF EVIDENCE FOR A MATERIAL SURFACE IN A COMPACT OBJECT THAT HAS MASS

  13. à neutrons tcombustion > tchute

  14. DT a MBH ACCRETION – JET CONNECTION MATTER RADIATING IN X-RAYS GOES BEYOND THE HORIZON ? JETS APPEAR ~5 MIN AFTER DISAPPEARANCE OF THE INNER DISK  ABSENCE OF EVIDENCE FOR A MATERIAL SURFACE

  15. QSO 3C 120 AS A SCALE-UP mQSO Marscher et al. Nature 2002 THEJETS ALSO APPEAR SHORTLY AFTER SUDDEN X-RAY DIPS TQSO/ TmQSO ~ 5x105 whereas MQSO/ MmQSO ~ 5x106 But these differences are small compared with data uncertainties

  16. Marscher et al. Nature 2002 ACCRETION AND EJECTION IN 3C 120