Phenomenology Research:“The Lived Experience” • Phenomenology is a science whose purpose is to describe the appearance of things as a lived experience. • It allows nursing to interpret the nature of consciousness in the world (Merleau-Ponty) • It can be descriptive or interpretive (hermeneutic). • It is a philosophy, an method, and an inductive logic strategy
Two Philosophical Differences • Peripheral research, stays distant from the subjects, objectivity seeking, and knowledge is gained by overcoming all doubt. Use Bracketing (Husserl) • Truth is not something we construct by distancing ourselves from those we want to study. Truth comes from our engagement with the world. Subjectivity is as important as objectivity. (Heideggerian)
Different Types of Phenomenology • Phenomenology of Essences • Experiment with relationships • Coding by categories • Using free imaginative variation • Phenomenology of Appearances • Focuses on phen. as it unfolds-takes shape • Sense of dynamic adventure with the world • Reductive Phenomenology • Is a constant work of the self related to bias, etc • Interpretive (Hermeneutic) Phenomenology • To interpret the phenomena being observed
Design Characteristics • Purposive samples of 7-20 usually going for saturation. • Instrument is the researcher • Data collection is by interview of groups or individual that are verbatim, taped, and field notes. • Data collection is directly tied to analysis, that eventually is coded or structured into themes.
Five Steps of the Method • Shared Experience is presented • Transform the lived experience into an experience the subject would agree with • Code the data • Put it into written form and create confirmation of the data texts. • Create a complete integration of all of these for a research document
The Rigor of Trustworthiness • Trustworthy questions • Trustworthy approach • Trustworthy in analysis • Trustworthy and authenticity of data
Other Research Rigors • Descriptive Vividness • Methodological Congruence • Theoretical Connectedness • Analytical Preciseness • Heuristic Relevance
Unique Features of Phenomenology • Most of the literature review is conducted at the end of the data collection. It is believed the CF biases the data collection and analysis. • Like Grounded Theory but without a BSP or bias already in mind. • It is conducted by gathering interview data from others. • It is never quantitative, but some would prefer to try and keep it objective.