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Volleyball Officiating: The Things They Didn’t Tell You

Volleyball Officiating: The Things They Didn’t Tell You

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Volleyball Officiating: The Things They Didn’t Tell You

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  1. Volleyball Officiating: The Things They Didn’t Tell You 3 Cs of Officiating Volleyball: How to Become a Good Official

  2. OVERVIEW In the next 45 minutes, you will hear and see a lot of very good information about officiating volleyball from a top national official who works high school, USA Volleyball and PAVO (NCAA) college women’s volleyball. Jot your questions on your handout for a discussion afterwards of the information on this DVD!

  3. Making a Commitment toward Becoming a Better VB Official Obtaining an officiating permit for volleyball and renewing it each year is not enough. Schools who contract with you are entitled to quality service which comes, in part, from: • studying the rules, including learning new rules; • mastering rules to allow timely and practical rule application to what is happening on the court; • improvement that comes from openness to receiving feedback, setting goals and engaging in a self-critique process to make weaknesses into strengths.

  4. Jim Beyer’s DVD Matches Theory with Practicality Understanding the rules of volleyball is very important. Understanding how the game is played today makes the difference in how you officiate, in how you conduct a match. Practical application of the rules can help “facilitate” a match.

  5. The 3 Cs of Officiating Volleyball 1. COMMUNICATION 2. CONSISTENCY (also refer to the handout, “Establishing Standards for Calling Hands”) 3. CONTROL

  6. The 3 Cs of Officiating Volleyball COMMUNICATION Approach to Communication: • Success of any relationship depends upon effective communication. • It is usually better to be proactive rather than reactive. • Communication includes creating a climate of comfort through: • Awareness of self and others. How are we doing? How am I being received and perceived? • Respect for self and others. • Openness reflected in active listening and give-and-take exchanges.

  7. The 3 Cs of Officiating Volleyball Whom do you communicate with? • Your Fellow Official • Support Staff • Players • Coaches • Host Management • Fans • Assigner • Self

  8. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Your Partner Your Fellow Official Communication is essential for effective teamwork and partnering and for “facilitating” a match. • Officials are judged in terms of how well they did as a team. You can’t do well unless your partner does well. • You have to establish that you’re a team. Entering the venue together helps. You meet the coaches together as a team, you work as a team and you leave as a team. • You support your partner throughout the match. • Whether it’s your regular partner or not, it’s your partner.

  9. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Your Partner Your Fellow Official For effective communication/teamwork, you need: • To share the workload (net check, area inspection, ball pressure check, and instruction of support staff). • A pre-match discussion during which: • Umpire gets an answer to “what do you expect of me?” • Informal signals are agreed upon. • Eye contact agreed upon (before, during and after each play). • Post-match discussion with candid assessment of how you partnered, what worked well, what could have been better. • Agreed-upon exit plan to “toot and scoot” after last match.

  10. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Support Staff Support Staff Creating rapport is essential! We have unpaid, uncertified volunteers making critical decisions. • Line Judges • Scorer • Assistant Scorer/Libero Tracker • Timer/Scoreboard Operator • Announcer • Ball “Shaggers” (when you have them!)

  11. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Support Staff Support Staff: Line judges • The referee typically instructs the line judges, evaluates ability/experience, places them in their respective positions, and evaluates their performance. The “SALT” acronym (Service, Antenna, Line, Touch) is typically used to teach/review signals (with or without flags). • Overruling may be necessary, so address this. • Using line judge calls helps involve the LJs and benefits the match. Ask for constant eye contact with the referee. • Use time-outs for further instruction of LJs, as needed.

  12. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Support Staff Support Staff: Scorer/Scorekeeper • Umpire typically works with the official scorer, evaluates experience, checks line-up entry, checks the “book” during time-outs and gets the scorer ready to provide the numbers of the next 3 servers (front row), as needed. • Umpire reminds the scorer to identify a wrong server prior to the serve but report it to umpire after service contact. • Ensuring the proper score is kept means the umpire gives the scorer enough time to record substitutions, including time to verify that the scoreboard matches the book.

  13. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Support Staff Support Staff: Assistant Scorer/Libero Tracker • The umpire works with the assistant scorer (LT) who tracks the libero and ensures the LT is partnering with the scorer. • The LT is instructed to ensure proper libero replacements occur, that the same 2 numbers are on either side of the “L,” that all substitutions are recorded as well as libero replacements, that libero exchange rules are followed and that libero serving is properly recorded. • Illegal libero replacements should reported immediately when identified by the libero tracker.

  14. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Support Staff Support Staff: Timer/Scoreboard Operator • The umpire works with the timer to ensure the horn or buzzer sounds under certain circumstances and that the score is posted accurately. This occurs through partnering with the scorer. • The umpire observes the timing of match segments throughout the match and addresses any problems. • The umpire should communicate expectations for warm-ups, time-outs and between-game intervals.

  15. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Support Staff Support Staff: Announcer • The umpire works with the announcer to ensure a common understanding of: • How player introductions and the National Anthem will occur (timing). • How flash photography and fan behavior issues will be addressed. • Whether the announcer will indicate who is serving and make a neutral commentary, if any commentary is made at all.

  16. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Support Staff Support Staff: Ball Shaggers • The referee typically instructs the ball “shaggers,” in the rare cases we have them, regarding: • Wiping the ball to keep it dry. • Where the ball should be held and where the extra ball should go. • Properly rolling the ball. • Avoiding interfering with play and safety issues.

  17. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Players Players • Perception is reality. Don’t call players by their names which conveys favoritism. To talk with the captain, say “captain.” They’re really the only ones to address officials. • If you do need to talk directly with a player, use the player’s number to address her (“#17,…) or go through captain. • Work through captain to prevent problems (screening, close to illegal alignment, close to delay of serve, close to issuing a card, to carry a communication to the coach). • Post match, limit any commentary to “nice match.” Never touch a player or coach other than via a handshake and only if the handshake is initiated by the player or coach.

  18. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Players/Coaches Players and Coaches • Perception is reality. Ensure both officials meet with both coaches, spend an equal amount of time and be cordial but brief. • Don’t call coaches by their names. To talk with the coach, say “coach.” During the match, clarifications are given the coach through the umpire. • The referee may work through the captain to prevent problems while the umpire may work through the captain or head coach (fix potential screening, a close-to-illegal alignment, a close to delay of serve, behavior that could be leading to a card, and to answer legitimate questions). • The umpire addresses bench behavior through the coach.

  19. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Players/Coaches Players and Coaches • Be aware of problems such as jewelry and illegal equipment during warm-ups and be proactive in getting a player who is warming up off the court as needed for the removal of illegal items. • To talk with a player, use the player’s number. “#15, please remove the rubber band from your wrist.” “#25, you have tape over an ear. You can’t warm-up or play with jewelry. Please take care of this now so you can go back to warming up.” “#10, are you okay?” • During the match, the umpire should address a player getting off the bench other than in one of the approved situations (cheer, sub, get water, greet a teammate).

  20. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Coaches Coaches • Approach with your partner for introductions, be cordial but brief, address new rules or rule questions. • Address the coach by saying “coach” and not by using the coach’s name. • Protect the referee through working with coach. • Remember the sitting coach rule (the coach is not permitted to be up to argue on a dead ball, just coach). • Go through the coach to address a problem with a player on the court. • Don’t initiate a post-match hand shake.

  21. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Coaches/Captains Pre-Match with Head Coaches and Captains • The referee introduces him/herself and partner, and asks captains and coaches to introduce themselves. • The referee goes over the court and playing area, legal equipment and uniforms, match and warm-up format and umpire adds information including waiting for authorization for subs to enter, then asks if there are any questions. • Conclude with calling of the coin toss, ensuring the visiting captain repeats the call and is shown the result of toss, then identify immediately which team has the serve to score-table staff.

  22. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Coaches Responding to Coach During Match • The umpire’s role is to serve and protect the referee. When a coach has a problem or question, the umpire does not allow coach to yell across court at the referee. • The umpire is proactive in anticipating a coach who will have a concern about a close call or non-call. • The umpire does not permit coach to stand to address a call since this is not one of the times a coach is permitted to be off the bench. Therefore, the umpire should go to the coach to address a concern, quickly respond, indicate “let’s play,” and give the court back.

  23. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Coaches Responding to Coach During Match • The umpire does not allow coach to continue to address judgment calls. After “let’s play,” the head coach is risking a card. Don’t turn your back on the other coach! • Umpire informs the head coach, if possible, regarding approaching issuance of a sanction card since this will result in loss of ability to stand and coach on a dead ball for the rest of the match. • If a player jumps up in response to a call or non-call, the umpire should immediately have the player sit down and issue a warning (may be verbal). Subsequent similar behavior should result in a card which will result in loss of standing privileges for the head coach.

  24. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Host Management Host management • Affirm that you will be officiating 3 days prior to the match with phone call to Athletic Department. • Be sure to say “hi” and “thank you for the opportunity” when arriving; identify room to change clothes and store officiating gear. • Identify where host management will be located, if needed, before, during and after the match. • Involve host management when there are facility problems, safety concerns, unruly fans, or other such issues.

  25. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Fans Fans • Generally, do not respond to fans during a match (perception that the official has “rabbit ears”). • If there is an unruly fan, this is where you would get host management involved such as if what is being said is truly offensive, threatening or aimed at intimidation. • If the opportunity presents itself, you might seek to explain a rule to a fan. But, avoid confrontation at all cost since this is a no-win situation. • Stop flash photography during play (safety issue). • Avoid using a public restroom and avoid crowds to prevent unnecessary problems..

  26. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Your Assigner Your assigner • Work with your assigner through prompt acceptance or rejection of assignments. Never push for particular matches but make your availability known. • Honor your commitments, and fulfill your contractual obligations. Never seek casual release from a contract. Don’t intentionally double book. • Obtain an acceptable replacement if you have to seek turning back an assignment for a valid reason. • If there were any problems at a match, notify your assigner immediately. • Don’t forget to say, “thanks.” Seek a mentor, who could be your assigner, to “move up.” Ask for feedback.

  27. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCommunication with Yourself Self • Use “self encouragement” through positive thoughts. If you’re thinking about the call that you might have missed, you’re probably going to miss the next one. • Don’t dwell on your mistakes; learn from them. • Try to create comfort, relax and relieve stress through such techniques as deep breathing and imaging. • Set goals and evaluate yourself fairly. • Be aware of how you relate to others and how you are “received” and “perceived.” • Try to maintain wide to narrow focus while you’re on the stand or working on the floor as umpire.

  28. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY 4 areas: • Ball handling. • Rules. • Warnings. • Sanctions.

  29. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY What coaches want and expect: Ball Handling. (Read “Establishing Standards for Calling Hands” handout) • Establish a comfort zone for ball-handling. • Know what is acceptable to allow, and let play continue. The first few calls set the tone for the match. • Know what not to call, and don’t call it! • One philosophy is don’t call it unless it’s “gross” which is clearly a matter of judgment. Don’t go by looks, sound, spin or body position, only the contact with the ball that you see. Don’t look ahead of the play.

  30. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY • Ball Handling: • “Ugly” is not necessarily a violation. • Importance in judging the duration and the direction. • Too much control is going to be an illegal hit for prolonged contact. • Lack of control likely is going to be a double hit or multiple contacts. First contact is never a “double hit” (multiple contacts) when only one effort is being made. Can be a held ball (prolonged contact) and should be called if it is. • The second contact likely will be a double hit, if there’s a fault, and the third hit will likely be prolonged contact but can be multiple contacts.

  31. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY • Ball Handling: • Expect to hear such things as, “They didn’t call it that way last night,” “Call it both ways” and “Be consistent.” • The only thing that is going to be consistent about us as individual officials is that we’re different. Nevertheless, players, coaches and fans are entitled to having us be consistent during the match. • If you make a call in the first game, you better be prepared to make that same call in a deciding game. • If you called it early in the match, you have to call it late. That’s the type of consistency we should be striving for.

  32. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY • Ball Handling: • Always remember the importance of the first few “handles” since your calls and non-calls will set what the players and coaches expect for the match. • Call only the faults you actually see, and do not call a fault in response to a coach yelling at you! • Let the players decide the match, but don’t ignore ball-handling errors on game or match point. • If it’s an error you call it; if it is not, you let it go – this is done within the consistency that you’ve maintained for that entire match.

  33. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY What coaches want and expect: Rules. • We referee different levels of volleyball. Some do USA Volleyball or collegiate matches as well as high school. Some work middle school. • However, if you know one set of rules and make the comparison from this standpoint, it will help you the most if you officiate under multiple rule sets. • PAVO and USA Volleyball have rule comparison sheets on their websites that include NFHS rules since NFHS gives input to each year’s comparison sheet.

  34. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY • Rules: • To understand today’s game of volleyball, you have to be a student of the game. Attend matches and observe from the stands. • Observe the play, receiving formations, whether you can see screening, where the setters are coming from on the court, offensive strategies, and during-the-match moves that address game flow and adjustments. • Observe your fellow officials, but without commenting. Observe whether their signals are clear to everyone and how well they seem to partner. Watch informal signals. Watch how the officials work with the coaches.

  35. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY • Rules: • When officiating, use the acceptable standards as well as the rules of what you’re officiating. There is no such thing as an insignificant net for OHSAA/NFHS. All nets that occur while the ball is in play should be called. • Apply the rules properly to the fact pattern that you observe. Use your judgment correctly pertaining to what level you’re officiating. For us, it’s high school girls’ VB. • Coaches should know the rules but the “protest” process for OHSAA requires a coach to ask for a time-out to get the referee to review a decision that was made on the immediately preceding rally.

  36. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY • Rules: • A review of a decision should be accepted if: • It is timely. • It does not solely involve judgment (such as ball in or out, touch, etc.). • Keep the 2007-08 NFHS Volleyball Rules Book and the Case Book and Manual close at hand to refer to it if you need it. • Study the rules throughout the season and discuss rule situations that arise with your Rules Interpreter or Advisor.

  37. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY What coaches want and expect: Warnings. • Need to be handled with consistency. • If you warn one team informally for something (no card issued), be prepared to do the same for the other team. • If you issue a yellow warning card, be prepared to handle it the same way if merited in terms of the other team. And, you have to quickly remind the affected head coach that the card issued to the coach or to bench personnel removes the head coach’s ability to stand and coach on a dead ball for the rest of the match.

  38. The 3 Cs of OfficiatingVolleyballCONSISTENCY • Warnings: • Need to be handled with consistency. • The gray area: we can take a hard line, by-the-book approach, or we can take a more liberal approach IF it doesn’t affect the outcome of the match. • The consistency factor always has to be maintained. If you choose to issue a verbal warning because a yellow warning card puts the head coach on the bench for the rest of the match, not a problem. But you can’t continue to issue verbal warnings and eventually have to be prepared to issue a card. • And, it has to be handled the same way for the other team.

  39. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY • Warnings: • Example 1: Screening is very rarely called but happens more frequently than many think. • If you think there’s a “potential” for a screen, you can warn the players involved but have to penalize it if the players have actually committed a screen by how the ball passed over the players since a violation occurred. • Example 2: Near to an overlap (close to illegal alignment) can be warned. Advantage is sometimes used rather than “counting boards” – today’s philosophy supports fixing it if you can but calling it early, not ignore early and call it late. • Give numbers of players: “#5 and #6, there’s a potential overlap, coach.” Or, “Coach, potential overlap, #5 and #6, RF/RB.”

  40. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY What coaches want and expect: Sanctions. • If you give one team a card for unsporting conduct, be prepared to do the same for any other player on that team and for the other team. Be consistent throughout the match. • Convey the sanctions through the coach. Warnings can go to the coach, to the captain or to a player at an appropriate time. • You can warn in the gray area of potentially a violation but violations must be penalized. • Our desire, regardless, is to allow the teams to decide the match. With consistency, we can strive toward achieving this.

  41. The 3 Cs of Officiating Volleyball:CONSISTENCY • Sanctions: • Key to issuing cards is first to determine whether there is an initial emotional response to a situation or a conscious reaction. • If a player or coaches first reaction is sufficiently minor to be penalized with a formal warning/yellow card, try to choose this route rather than issuing a penalty/red card. • Be aware of the coaching strategy used by some to try to get a card to motivate the teams or even to try to get an advantage and influence match officials. Consistency is the best protection here.

  42. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY • Sanctions: • Regardless, unsporting acts have to be addressed either by a yellow card/warning for an emotional reaction that is limited or a red card/penalty for a more conscious action. Rude conduct would merit a red card. • Offensive conduct or repeated rude conduct on the part of anyone would be subject to possible disqualification (red and yellow cards, held apart) as would an aggressive act. • Talking through the net typically merits at least a yellow card while taunting (celebrating at the other team) typically merits a red card. If you can’t identify the player, the card goes to the head coach. • Gestures as well as words can merit a sanction.

  43. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY • Sanctions: • Offensive conduct or repeated rude conduct on the part of anyone would be subject to possible disqualification (red and yellow cards, held apart) as would an aggressive act. • Gestures as well as words can merit a penalty/red card or beyond. • Talking through the net typically merits at least a yellow card while taunting (celebrating at the other team) typically merits a red card. If you can’t identify the player, the card goes to the captain for failure to control her team. If bench personnel including assistant coaches are involved, the card goes to the head coach. • Issuance of cards is a judgment call, not subject to review.

  44. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY • Sanctions: • UROA is the acronym to remember which cards to issue. • Unsporting conduct is a warning (yellow card). • Rude conduct that goes beyond unsporting and or is repeated unsporting conduct by the same person is a penalty (red card). • Offensive conduct or repeated rude conduct on the part of the same person would be subjected to disqualification (red and yellow cards, held apart in separate hands) as would an aggressive action. An incident report is required. • Disqualified player must leave the area if adult supervision available. Coach must leave the building.

  45. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONSISTENCY • Sanctions: • Question to ask about whether your decision-making as an official is being affected by someone’s actions during the match. If so, a sanction must be issued to whoever is causing this to occur. • Should be treated dispassionately, just as an official should any other decision that is being made. • Keep your cool. Don’t show anger. Remain as detached as you can. • You must be fair to the other team. Other team is making all the complaints and getting all the attention.

  46. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONTROL What are the key elements of “Control”? • Everything starts with self control. • Informal warnings. • Prevention. • Bench control. • Eye contact and use of “let’s play” followed by ready signal.

  47. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONTROL Control: • Equipment. • Appearance. • Preparation. • Confidence. • Delays.

  48. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONTROL Control with Equipment: • Make sure you measure the net. Requires “accurate” net chain. Measure and verify marking at correct height based on level you’re working. Doesn’t assume your net chain is marked at the correct settings. • Don’t try to fix a net on your own. Get help from host management or the coach if you can’t adjust the net with the net ropes and cables. • Line up the antennas on the outside of the sidelines using the net chain as a plumb bob/line.

  49. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONTROL • Equipment: • Make sure you check pressure in all balls that will be used for the match. Don’t just feel for correct pressure without also measuring using a ball pressure gauge that you have tested the accuracy on previously (such as compared to someone else’s gauge). • If possible, make sure you distinguish game balls from other balls to avoid getting them mixed up. All balls for the match should be set at the same ball pressure.

  50. The 3 Cs of Officiating VolleyballCONTROL • Equipment: • Make sure the standards and referee stand are padded. Padding is not an option. Can’t play the match without this. • Make sure all court lines are down and at correct distances. Blue/white painters’ tape good to fix a line. • Check to ensure the referee stand is properly secured and at the right height for the official. • Score table set far enough back and chairs back. Keep things out of the substitution zone between benches and score table. Safety is paramount. • Get unsafe objects removed from warm-up area.