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NEW WORLD ENCOUNTERS

NEW WORLD ENCOUNTERS

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NEW WORLD ENCOUNTERS

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  1. NEW WORLD ENCOUNTERS America: Past and Present Chapter 1

  2. Native American Histories before Conquest • 20,000 B.C.--Siberian hunters become first American inhabitants • 8,000 B.C.--Humans reach tip of South America. • 5,000 B.C.--Agricultural Revolution • Crops include maize, squash, and beans • Shift from nomadic hunting and gathering to permanent villages or large cities

  3. Mysterious Disappearances • Anasazi Culture—Chaco Canyon • Sophisticated irrigation • Well-built roads for transportation • Adena and Hopewell Peoples—Ohio Valley • Large ceremonial mounds • Extensive trade network • Cahokia—Mississippi Valley • Large ceremonial mounds • Far-flung trade network

  4. Aztec Dominance • Aztecs settle valley of Mexico • Center of large, powerful empire • Highly organized social structure • Rule through fear and force

  5. Eastern Woodland Cultures • Atlantic Coast of North America • Native Americans lived in smaller bands • Agriculture supplemented by hunting and gathering

  6. Cultural Characteristics • Diversity of language groups, ethnicities • Define place in society through kinship • Communal, charismatic, sociopolitical formation • Diplomacy, trade, war organized around reciprocal relationships

  7. Confederacies of Eastern North America • Hurons--Southern Ontario near Lakes Ontario and Erie • Iroquois--Central New York • Powhattans--Chesapeake

  8. Indians Discover a New World • Native Americans eager for European trade • Reject notions of European superiority • European efforts to convert or "civilize" Indians • Frequent contact makes native men receptive to Christianity • Determination to preserve power leads native women to resist conversion • Native disease, dependence erodes resistance to conversion among women and men

  9. Disease and Dependency • Contact brings population decline among American Indians • Cause: Lack of resistance to epidemic disease • smallpox • measles • influenza • Rate as high as ninety-five percent

  10. Consequences of Epidemic Disease

  11. West Africa: Ancient and Complex Societies • Diversity of sub-Saharan Cultures • Islam • Strong traditional beliefs • A history of empires • Mali • Ghana • Daily life centered on elder-ruled clans

  12. Beginnings of theSlave Trade • 15th-century Portuguese chart sea lanes from Europe to sub-Saharan Africa • Native rulers sell prisoners of war to Portuguese as slaves

  13. How Many Slaves? • 17th century--ca. 1,000 Africans per year • 18th century--5.5 million transported to the Americas • By 1860--ca. 11 million • Before 1831, more Africans than Europeans came to the Americas.

  14. European Colonization • 10th Century --Leif Ericson settles “Vinland” • Late 15th-century--preconditions for overseas settlement attained • rise of nation-states • spread of new technologies • spread of old knowledge. • 1492--Columbus initiates large-scale European colonization

  15. Building New Nation-States • Population growth after 1450 • “New Monarchs” forge nations from scattered provinces • Spain • France • England • “Middle class” a new source of revenue • Powerful military forces deployed

  16. Making Sense of a New World • Spain the first European nation to achieve conditions for successful colonization • Unified under Ferdinand and Isabella • 1492--Jews and Muslims expelled • Conquest of Canary Islands provides rehearsal for colonization

  17. Calculating Risks and Rewards • Columbus persuades Queen Isabella to finance westward expedition to “Cathay” • 1492--Initial voyage • Three subsequent voyages to find cities of China • 1506--died clinging to belief he had reached the Orient • Made possible Spanish dominion in America

  18. The Conquistadores • Independent adventurers commissioned by Spanish crown to subdue new lands • By 1512--Major Caribbean islands decimated • By 1521--Cortés destroys Aztec Empire • 1539-42--de Soto explores Southeast • 1540-42--Coronado explores Southwest

  19. From Plunder to Settlement • Encomienda System rewards Conquistadors • Large land grants • Indian inhabitants provide labor or tribute • Appointed officials answer only to Crown • Catholic Church • Protects Indian rights • Performs mass conversions • By 1650, 1/2 million Spaniards in New World • Unmarried males intermarry • Mixed-blood population emerges

  20. The French Claim Canada • 1608--Samuel de Champlain founds Quebec • French Empire eventually includes St. Lawrence River, Great Lakes, Mississippi • French Crown makes little effort to foster settlement • Fur trade underpins economy • Indians become valued trading partners

  21. England in the New World • Claims New World territory under Henry VIII (r. 1509-1547) • Achieves preconditions for colonization under Elizabeth I

  22. Birth of English Protestantism • English rise influenced by Protestant Reformation • 1517--Martin Luther sparks reform in Germany • 1536--John Calvin’s Institutes published in Geneva • Reformation pits European Protestants against Catholics

  23. The English Reformation • Tudor monarchs bring political unity • Reformation under Henry Vlll (r. 1509-1547) strengthens Crown • Protestant reform accelerated under Edward VI (r. 1547-1553) • Death of Mary I (r. 1553-1558) cuts short English Catholic Counterreformation • Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) consolidates English Reformation

  24. England’s Tudor Monarchs

  25. Militant Protestantism • Lutheran Reformation • God speaks through Bible, not Pope or priests • Justification by faith alone for salvation • Calvinist Reformation • John Calvin stresses God’s omnipotence • Predestination—some persons chosen by God for salvation • Calvinist Christianity expands in northern Europe • France—Huguenots • Scotland—Presbyterians • England—Puritans

  26. Woman in Power • Elizabeth I (1558-1603) a very capable monarch • Elizabeth introduces Via Media • Protestant Doctrine • “Catholic” Ritual • Ends religious turmoil in England • Elizabeth’s excommunication by Pope prompts Spanish crusade against England • England aligned with Protestant nations against Catholic powers

  27. Religion, War, and Nationalism • Spanish hostility makes Elizabeth the symbol of English, Protestant nationhood • Sea Dogs’ seizure of Spanish treasure makes them English heroes • Elizabeth's subjects raid Spain's American empire • 1588-- Spanish Armada defeated

  28. Irish Background for American Settlement • Ireland a laboratory for English colonization • Irish viewed as backward • English under Elizabeth seize Irish land • English Brutality • English ethnocentrism benign when Irish docile • English brutally crush frequent Irish resistance such as massacre of women and children • English adventurers compare Native Americans with “wild” Irish

  29. Early English Efforts in America • Sir Walter Raleigh’s Roanoke colony of 1584 fails • By 1600 no English settlements in New World • Richard Hakluyt advertises benefits of American colonization