Hint from Real Interviewer 7. I love when you bring a "project." I expect you to do a little research about my company. That’s a given. To really impress me, use the research you’ve done to describe how you will hit the ground running and contribute right away – the bigger the impact the better. If you bring a specific skill, show how I can leverage that skill immediately. Remember how I see it: I have to pay your salary starting day one, so I'd love to see an immediate return on that investment starting day one.
Full Article • What Interviewers Wish They Could Tell Every Candidate
Project Management Phases and Processes for a Project Including Key Review Items Linda Clark-Borre, PMP
Project Lifecycle and Organization ORGANIZATION Project Phases Stakeholders Sub-phasesPositive Negative A project can be divided into phases and sub-phases which constitute the project lifecycle. A project phase is part of a project, and characterized by completion of 1 or more project deliverables. Two kinds of stakeholders Customer refers to entity that acquires the product of the project, whereas Users = those who will use the product.
Look Out! • Don’t confuse project phases and process groups. The latter are the “ing” things…. Initiating, planning, etc. A phase might include processes from multiple process groups. • Negative stakeholders are all too often overlooked, increasing the probability of project failure. • The activities of the next phase might begin without closing a current phase – e.g., fast tracking
Look Out! • Concentrate on this confusing statement: PROJECT lifecycle is usually part of the PRODUCT lifecycle, the latter of which might involve multiple projects and operations. • A stakeholder may or may not be directly involved in the project. Not all stakeholders are necessarily “equal.”
Memorize for CAPM • Phase end reviews are called kill points, phase gates, or phase exits. • The key stakeholders in a project are the following: Project Manager, Project Sponsor, Customer/user, performing organization, ProductTeam, PM Team, Influencers, + PMO if it exists.
Memorize There are Three Kinds of Org Structures: (Need a Refresher? Here it is.) • FUNCTIONAL – PM authority is little to none • MATRIX – 3 sub-types • Weak – PM authority low • Balanced – PM authority low to moderate • Strong matrix – PM’s authority moderate to high
PROJECTIZED org structure – PM Authority High to almost total • In a weak matrix organization, the PM’s role is that of a project coordinator or expediter
Test Yourself – Be Careful – Consider Every Word • All of the following are key stakeholders on every project except: a. Contractors b. Project sponsor c. An executive in the customer’s organization who can influence the project negatively d. User Answer is a. Contractors can be stakeholders but not key stakeholders.
The Big PictureProject Lifecycle Memory help: the process groups differ from the knowledge areas in that they all have “ings”
PM Processes for a Project • Each aspect of a project is managed by using the corresponding knowledge area; so the knowledge areas are also called the project aspects. Project “KA”- Aspects Lifecycle – “ings” Processes
Understand PMBOK- A process is initiated by using processes from the initiating process group, planned by using processes from the planning process group, and is executed by using processes from the executing process group. The process, throughout its lifecycle, is monitored and controlled using processes from the monitoring/controlling process group, whereas it is closed on completion or cancellation by using processes from the closing group. This is example is from the FOURTH edition of PMBOK and is used for illustration only. Refer to Journal ITTO Documents.
Understand • Those 5 “ing” processes are common to most projects most of the time. • PM is both integrative and iterative. The processes interact with each other, especially the middle ones who can be like naughty kids. (Planning, Executing, & the twins, Controlling-Monitoring.) • That means a change in one area can have affect other aspects of the project!
Understand • A process has input to which tools and techniques are applied to produce output. • These result in some of the project artifacts - the word artifact means any work product including source code, documents, diagrams, etc.
Understand • The output of one process may become the input of another – example – inputs to develop charter produce outputs in the form of expert judgmentas it is reviewed. • In the planning stage, the project team should involve all the appropriate stakeholders depending on their influence on the project. • Put real thought into who might affect your project!
Look out for Trickiness in CAPM Exam • Project stages – process groups – are NOT the same as project phases. Watch language. • The stages or process groups, are not always formed in serial fashion. E.g.- a project is simultaneously executed, monitored and controlled. • A project should be properly closed using processes from the closing process group even if the project is cancelled or not completed.
Look Out… • As we often discuss – not all projects use all the processes. Appropriate processes are selected from all the process groups for a specific project.
Memorize • There are 47 processes that map to 5 process groups and 10 knowledge areas. • The five process groups are initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing. • All the processes that are executed at different stages of a project belong to the 10 Knowledge areas that you are memorizing. Integration, Scope, Time, etc.
Memorize • Reviewing the initiating process at the start of each phase helps the project stay focused on the business need for which the project was started. • Most of the project budget is / will be expended in performing the processes of the executing process group. $$$$$$$
YOU • Are now “reviewed” in Three PMBOK Chapters • Painless, right? Actual 389F Students