BACB Supervisor Training: What They Didn’t Teach Us in Graduate School R.M. “Duke” Schell, PhD, BCBA-D NCABA Liaison to ABAI & NCABA BACB ACE Coordinator Director of Psychology, Riddle Developmental Center Melanie H. Bachmeyer, PhD, BCBA-D NCABA Vice President Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, UNC-Wilmington “This training program is based on the BACB Supervisor Training Curriculum Outline but is offered independent of the BACB.” http://www.bacb.com/Downloadfiles/supervisor_curriculum.pdf
BACB Supervisor Training This curriculum outline is a task list of the knowledge and skills required for the effective supervision of those who deliver behavior-analytic services and those who are pursuing BACB certification. After December 31, 2014, only individuals who complete a training experience based on this curriculum outline will be permitted to supervise individuals pursuing the BCBA or BCaBA credentials or practicing BCaBAs. http://www.bacb.com/Downloadfiles/supervisor_curriculum.pdf
BACB Supervisor Training All Type 2 ACE Providers who hold the BCBA credential are eligible to offer supervision training based on this curriculum outline. The cumulative duration of training must be at least 8 hours (but may be offered in units as brief as 1 hour) and include opportunities for trainees to demonstrate verbal or practical competence of the curricular areas below. Training may be conducted in person or online. http://www.bacb.com/Downloadfiles/supervisor_curriculum.pdf
BACB Supervisor Training Activity: Introductions & what you wanted to be when you grew up
Have you ever had a supervisor that “speed-evolved” to a position of authority without acquiring effective supervisor skills?
BACB Supervisor Training I. The Purpose of Supervision 1 hour/50min: 8:30-9:20AM II. Important Features of Supervision 1 hour/50min: 9:20-10:10AM III. Behavioral Skills Training 2.5 hours/125min: 10:25-11:30AM // 12:30-1:30PM IV. Delivering Performance Feedback 1.5 hour/75min: 1:30-2:45PM V. Evaluating the Effects of Supervision 1 hour/50min: 3:00-3:50PM VI. Ongoing Professional Development 1 hour/50min: 3:50-4:40PM
I. The Purpose of Supervision A. The supervisor should be able to describe the following reasons for effective, evidence-based supervision: • To facilitate the delivery of high-quality services that result in client improvement • To develop behavior-analytic, professional, and ethical repertoires in specific areas of behavior-analytic practice as specified by the BACB’s current task list, Professional Disciplinary and Ethical Standards, and Guidelines for Responsible Conduct for Behavior Analysts
I. The Purpose of Supervision A. The supervisor should be able to describe the following reasons for effective, evidence-based supervision: • To guide behavioral case conceptualization, problem solving, decision making, and assistance seeking of the supervisee • To improve current repertoires of the supervisee • To maintain beneficial repertoires of the supervisee • To model effective supervision practices for the supervisee
I. The Purpose of Supervision B. The supervisor should be able to describe the following potential outcomes of ineffective supervision: • Low-quality services to clients that result in lack of client progress or harm • Poor-performing supervisees with insufficient practice repertoires • Poor-performing supervisees unable to problem solve and make decisions in novel or unfamiliar situations • Supervisees who do not become effective supervisors in their own practices • Supervisees who engage in unethical behavior
Are “good managers” born or made? What are differences between “leadership” and “supervision”? Purpose of supervision
The Purpose of Supervision Activity: Think of worst supervisor write down one thing they did Think of best supervisor write down one thing they did
Do we look forward to observing supervisees and giving them feedback? Do our supervisees look forward to having us observe and give feedback?
Do our supervisees see us as Flying Monkeys?
Are we seen as reinforcer dispensers? Does anybody here remember wearing reinforcer aprons?
“Good Supervision” Attributes/Styles • Empathic, warm and understanding • Supportive, a sense of validation or affirmation • Approachable • Genuine • Flexible • Interested and attentive • Sense of humor • Task-oriented • Insight oriented • Respect for personal integrity, autonomy, and strengths • Encourage exploration and experimentation
“Good Supervision” Attributes/Styles • Understanding of personal supervisee characteristics and dynamics of supervisory relationship • Encourage supervisee disclosures • Knowing when to self-disclose • Knowledge and experience relevant to supervisee • Specialized expertise and skill • Theoretical, technical, and conceptual knowledge • Active as practitioner as well • Articulation of shared expectations and mutual goals for supervision • Feedback structured around agreed-upon goals • Constructive criticism balanced with encouragement • Regular feedback • Constructive confrontation
“Bad Supervision” Attributes/Styles • Unbalanced • Developmentally inappropriate • Poor modeling of professional/personal attributes • Unclear expectations/standards of accountability, supervisee needs not assessed • Unskilled and unreliable as a professional resource • Too little/too much feedback • Personal agenda • Inept • Disinterested, unavailable • Disagreed theoretically or conceptually • Inflexible and intolerant • Dual relationships
We all have different learning histories: would you rather have Picasso or Dali as a supervisor or supervisee?
II. Important Features of Supervision The supervisor should be able to describe or demonstrate the following components of effective, evidence-based supervision: • Establishment of performance expectations of both supervisor and supervisee • Description of how supervision will proceed according to the BACB Experience Standards (e.g., frequency of individual supervision, group supervision) • Description of potentially appropriate activities as described in the BACB Experience Standards • Description of competency tests of understanding
II. Important Features of Supervision The supervisor should be able to describe or demonstrate the following components of effective, evidence-based supervision: • Development and review of contractual agreement of the nature of supervision and performance expectations • Assessment of initial skills of supervisee - Interview - Observation • Behavioral skills training of supervisee • Scheduled observations that may include in-vivo, video, web- based, computer-assisted observations - Before, during, and after training
II. Important Features of Supervision The supervisor should be able to describe or demonstrate the following components of effective, evidence-based supervision: • Review of written materials developed by the supervisee, including written plans, data sheets, and reports • Ongoing scheduled supervision meetings - Individual - Group - Web-based, computer assisted • Performance evaluations (formal & informal) of the supervisee -Meetings - Written evaluations • Evaluation of the supervision process and the supervisor by the supervisee - Meetings - Written evaluations
Supervised Experience • Supervisor Qualifications: • BCBA in good standing, or • Faculty member approved by BACB as instructor in board-approved course sequence • NOT • Relative • Subordinate/employee
Supervised Experience • Supervisees will need to have completed the online, competency-based training module on BACB experience standards before beginning their experiential training (in BACB Gateway) – After December 31, 2014
Supervised Experience • Supervised Independent Fieldwork • Practicum • Within a university practicum program approved by the BACB and taken for academic credit • Intensive Practicum • Within a university practicum program approved by the BACB and taken for academic credit
Supervised Experience • No fewer than 10 hours but no more than 30 hours may be accrued per week (the 3 week-per-month requirement has been eliminated). • Supervision may be conducted in small groups for no more than half of the total supervised hours in each supervisory period.
Supervised Experience Activity: Determine required hours of supervision for varied forms of experience
Supervised Experience • Appropriate Clients: • Persons • Not related to applicants • Must work with multiple clients
Supervised Experience • Appropriate Supervisee Activities: • Conducting assessment activities related to the need for behavioral interventions, • Designing, implementing, and monitoring behavior analysis programs for clients, • Overseeing the implementation of behavior analysis programs by others • Other activities normally performed by a behavior analyst that are directly related to behavior analysis (e.g., planning meetings regarding the behavior analysis, researching literature related to the program, talking to individuals about the program, etc.). The supervisor will determine if activities qualify.
Supervised Experience • No more than half of the experience hours can be in direct implementation of behavioral programs. What should supervisees be doing for the remainder of their experience? Most of the other appropriate activities identified in the standards, including: • Designing and systematically monitoring skill-acquisition and behavior-reduction programs; • Overseeing the implementation of behavior-analytic programs by others; • Training, designing behavioral systems, and performance management; • Other activities normally performed by a behavior analyst that are directly related to behavior analysis such as attending planning meetings regarding the behavior analytic program, researching the literature related to the program, and talking to individuals about the program.
Supervised Experience • Activities that will not count as experience include: • Attending meetings with little or no behavior-analytic content • Providing interventions that are not based in behavior analysis • Performing nonbehavioral administrative activities • Completing nonbehavioral assessments (e.g., diagnostic assessments, intellectual assessments) • Paperwork, documentation, billing, or any other activities that are not directly related to behavior analysis.
Supervised Experience Activity: List appropriate & inappropriate activities for experience standards, put activities in the appropriate column
Supervised Experience • Contractual/Ethical Considerations: • Adhere to BACB guidelines • Develop and adhere to contract
The Supervision Contract • “The supervisee and supervisor must execute a written contract prior to the onset of the experience. The purpose of the contract is to protect all parties and align experience activities with the purpose of supervision described in the Nature of Supervision.”
The Supervision Contract • “The contract should: • State the responsibilities of the supervisor and supervisee; and • Include a description of the appropriate activities and instructional objectives; and • Include the objective and measurable circumstances under which the supervisor will sign the supervisee’s Experience Verification Form when the experience had ended; and”
The Supervision Contract • The contract should: • “Delineate the consequences should the parties not adhere to their responsibilities (including proper termination of the relationship); and • Include a statement requiring the supervisee to obtain written permission from the supervisee’s on-site employer or manager when applicable; and • Include an attestation that both parties will adhere to the BACB Guidelines for Responsible Conduct for Behavior Analysts and the BACB Disciplinary and Ethical Standards
Supervised Experience Activity: Construct a supervision contract
Supervised Experience • Nature of Supervision: • Must provide specific feedback • Observation should focus on supervisee-client interactions • Documentation of Supervision: • Feedback Form
Documentation • BACB Experience Supervision Form • Behavior analytic activity (experience hours) • Supervised hours • Case Note
BACB Experience Supervision Form • “Supervisors may develop their own version of the Experience Supervision Form. These alternative forms must include all of the following events: • Date of each supervisory meeting • Duration of each supervisory meeting • Format of each supervisory meeting (individual or group) • An evaluation of supervisee performance • Total experience hours obtained during the supervisory period • Total individual and small-group supervision hours obtained during the supervisory period • Signature and date lines for supervisor and supervisee” • Retain documentation for 7 years (supervisor & supervisee)
Supervised Experience Activity: Fill out an Experience Supervision Form
Watch out for supervision sessions that become gripe sessions or therapy sessions only. What functions may griping and complaining serve for the supervisee? Are you reinforcing griping and complaining? How do you turn griping around? Important features of supervision
Technology • Local/Onsite • Distance Supervision • Direct Observation • Case Review Meeting • Work Sample Review