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Focal Mechanism Solutions

Focal Mechanism Solutions

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Focal Mechanism Solutions

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  1. Focal Mechanism Solutions • Also called “beachball diagrams” “fault plane solutions” • Tell us the geometry and mechanism of the fault in a simple diagram • Generally from the moment tensor (which is more general), but originally calculated using first motions – done here to illustrate the concepts

  2. Examples

  3. Two steps to understanding 1) The stereographic projection 2) The geometry of first motions and how this is used to define fault motion. http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/projects/geoweb/participants/dutch/STRUCTGE/sphproj.htm

  4. Stereographic projection • A method of projecting half a sphere onto a circle. • e.g. planes cutting vertically through the sphere plot as straight lines Images from http://www.learninggeoscience.net/free/00071/index.html

  5. Stereonets • A template called a stereonet is used to plot data. • Example – plotting planes (e.g. faults)

  6. Stereonets • Example – plotting lines (e.g. ray paths)

  7. Stereonets • Example – pitch (or rake) of a line on a plane (e.g. the slip direction on a fault)

  8. Refresher on terminology

  9. Energy and Polarity of “First Motions” courtesy of Ian Hill, University of Leicester, UK

  10. Earthquake on a vertical plane courtesy of Ian Hill, University of Leicester, UK

  11. Determination of nodal planes courtesy of Ian Hill, University of Leicester, UK

  12. Spreading of the seismic wave courtesy of Ian Hill, University of Leicester, UK

  13. Data on the surface, interpreted in 3D courtesy of Ian Hill, University of Leicester, UK

  14. Take-off angle • The angle (from vertical) that the ray leaves the earthquake = take-off angle Stein and Wysession, An Introduction to seismology, earthquakes and Earth structure

  15. Azimuth (f) and take-off angle

  16. With a lot of recordings we can reconstruct faults with any orientations courtesy of Ian Hill, University of Leicester, UK

  17. Fault types and “Beach Ball” plots courtesy of Ian Hill, University of Leicester, UK

  18. Example Focal mechanism diagrams on the Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone

  19. Same N-S fault, different slip direction Stein and Wysession, An Introduction to seismology, earthquakes and Earth structure

  20. Great review on the web at: http://www.learninggeoscience.net/free/00071/

  21. Waveform modeling • By constructing synthetic seismograms and comparing them to the recorded data we use more of the information in the seismogram, not just the arrival time and first motion data Stein and Wysession, “An Introduction to seismology, earthquakes and Earth structure”

  22. u(t) = x(t) * e(t) * q(t) * i(t) U(ω)= X(ω) E(ω) Q(ω) I(ω) source time function attenuation instrument response reflections & conversions at interfaces seismogram Waveform modeling Construction of the synthetic seismogram Stein and Wysession, “An Introduction to seismology, earthquakes and Earth structure”

  23. Map view Slip rate = rupture Fault Time TR Source-time function • At one point on the fault slip takes a finite time (called “rise time”): • The slip travels along the fault at rupture velocity vr, so there is also a finite “rupture time” Slip Slip rate Time Time TD TD

  24. = * Slip rate Slip rate Slip rate Time Time TR TD TD TR TR TR TD TD Source time function • The source time function is the combination of the rise time and the rupture time: • Directionality affects the rupture time Rupture direction TR TD TR TD

  25. phase reflections • e(t) represents reflections due to the Earth structure • If modeling only the P arrival, it’s only needed for shallow events Stein and Wysession, “An Introduction to seismology, earthquakes and Earth structure”

  26. A(t) = A0e -ω0t/2Q Attenuation • The loss of energy with time • Q controls the amount of loss Sipkin and Jordan 1979

  27. Instrument response function • The response of the seismometer is different for different frequencies so it also filters the data. Stein and Wysession, “An Introduction to seismology, earthquakes and Earth structure”

  28. Moment Tensor Inversion • The Moment tensor describes the fault as set of equivalent forces • Calculated from the amplitude of surface waves Love Rayleigh Stein and Wysession, “An Introduction to seismology, earthquakes and Earth structure”