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Three Major Battles

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  1. Quaestio: Was Herodotus the Father of History or the Father of Lies?Nunc Agenda: Take out your Three Battles worksheet from yesterday.

  2. Three Major Battles • Marathon • After the Ionian Revolt, Darius sent ships and troops Marathon, 26 miles N of Athens • Outnumbered (20,000 to 9,000!), Athenians went to Marathon to stop Persians before reaching Athens • Athenians had only infantry (foot soldiers) • Persians had cavalry (horse-back soldiers) • Persian plan: Take the cavalry on ships to attack Athens (only infantry left) • Athenian hoplites attack remaining Persians and crush them!

  3. Three Major Battles • Thermopylae • Darius dies, son Xerxes = new ruler, want to conquer all Greece • 250,000 PERSIAN SOLDIERS marched down from N Greece conquering poleis • Spartans met Persians at Thermopylae, a narrow path on the side of a mountain • Even though there were so many Persians, the narrowness of the path made the Persian numbers meaningless • Then, a Greek traitor showed the Persians a secret path to attack the Persians, and they lost

  4. Three Major Battles • Salamis • Athenians fled to Island of Salamis, and Persians destroyed Athens • Athenian General Themisticles convinced other Greeks to help them fight the Persians together • The Plan: Lure the Persian ships into a narrow channel where it would be hard to sail their big ships and their numbers would not matter (JUST LIKE WITH THERMOPYLAE!) • Themisticles sent a message to Xerxes saying he wanted to join forces, and when Persian ships entered the channel, the Greeks surprise attacked • Spartans on land killed Persians who swam to shore • 479 BCE- Greeks finally defeat the Persians!

  5. Greeks win! Now what? • PENSA: Read the Peloponnesian War handout and answer the questions on a separate sheet of paper.

  6. Guided Mini-Seminar • Working in pairs, read the excerpts from Herodotus and answer the questions on a separate sheet of paper. • When everyone has had time to analyze the selections, the class will use examples to discuss the topic: • “Herodotus: Father of History or Father of Lies?”