EUROPEAN FRONT: Before U.S. Enters the War • BATTLE OF BRITAIN 1940 • Hitler knew he couldn’t defeat the British Navy • Began this battle as an air war (Luftwaffe) • Worked well at first… • British develop superior aircraft • Begin bombing German cities while Germany bombed England at night.
WHERE DO WE START? • EUROPE • NORTH AFRICA • ASIA (PACIFIC)
FRONTS • EUROPE: • ALLIES TAKE ON GERMANY: • GOAL: TO DEFEAT THEM • PACIFIC: • DEFENSIVE • DEFEAT NAZIS FIRST
EUROPEAN FRONT: U.S. Enter the War • MAJOR BATTLES: Battle of Stalingrad SOVIETS BATTLE GERMANS AT STALINGRAD- AUGUST 1942-1943 • Bloodiest standoff on the war • Over one million casualties: 199 days • Allies decided to let Russia fight on their own THIS DECISION WILL COST THE U.S. FUTURE RELATIONS WITH SOVIETS.
NORTH AFRICAN FRONTS • OFFENSIVE FIGHT • ROOSEVELT AND CHURCHILL MEET IN MOROCCO: 1943 • DECIDE NOT TO HELP SOVIETS INSTEAD STICK TO PLAN TO ATTACK FROM NORTH AFRICA INTO SICILY
NORTH AFRICAN BATTLES • OPERATION TORCH • NOVEMBER 1942 • DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER • MOROCCO & ALGERIA FIRST FALL AS THEY HAVE GERMAN PUPPET GOVT • TUNISIA: ROMMEL(THE DESERT FOX) AND HIS AFRIKA CORPS • MAY 1943: AXIS TROOPS SURRENDER AFRICA
European Battles • Eisenhower plans attacks on Italy after success in N. Africa with help of British • Campaign begins June 1943 -Sicily -Anzio -Rome • Mussolini forced to resign in August 1943
European Front April 29, 1945 Mussolini and 15 other fascist leaders are executed and hanged in the Piazzale Loreto in Milan.
EUROPEAN FRONT AND BATTLES • OPERATION OVERLORD (D-DAY) • FDR • STALIN • CHURCHILL • MEET TO PLAN INVASION ACROSS ENGLISH CHANNEL • NORMANDY • GERMANS EXPECTED THEM TO ATTACK ELSEWHERE AT CALAIS
EUROPEAN BATTLES • NORMANDY, FRANCE (D-DAY) • LARGEST AMPHIBIOUS INVASION • JUNE 6, 1944 *Code Breakers intercept Axis correspondence* • 150,000 ALLIED SOLDIERS • 600 WARSHIPS • GENERAL DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER/Rommel for Germans • BY JULY: ALLIED FORCES IN FRANCE WAS OVER 1 MILLION • HITLER HESITATES TO FIGHT BACK
World War II D-DAY INVASION OF NORMANDY
WHAT DO I NEED TO KNOW? • NAZIS CONTINUE TO FIGHT THROUGH AIR ATTACKS 1943 & 1944 • OPERATION OVERLORD: DRIVE THE NAZIS OUT OF FRANCE AND HEAD THEM TOWARDS DEFEAT AT HOME • JUNE 6, 1944 • LARGEST AMPHIBIOUS INVASION • (INVASION BY SEA)
WHERE DID THIS TAKE PLACE? • 60 MILE STRETCH OF NORMANDY COAST (NORTHERN FRENCH COAST) • HITLER CAUGHT UNAWARE: THOUGHT ATTACK WOULD BE FURTHER UP THE COAST AT CALAIS • 326,000 SOLDIERS LAND THE FIRST WEEK, 50,000 VEHICLES, 100,000 TONS OF SUPPLIES
THE BEACHES • CODE NAMES: • JUNO • GOLD • OMAHA • UTAH • SWORD
WHO WAS INVOLVED? • AMERICAN LEADER: DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER • GERMAN LEADER: ROMMEL • SOLDIERS • AMERICAN • CANADIAN • BRITISH • GERMAN
D-Day American soldiers wading through water into Nazi machine-gun fire on the coast of France.
European Front • Battle of the Bulge • When? – December 16, 1944 • Where? – border areas near Luxembourg, France and Germany • Results? – The Germans began a counterattack against the Allies as the Allies attempted to drive the Germans completely out of France. • Importance? – Germans begin retreat signaling their defeat. • First time allies will enter Germany since war started • First time allies will see concentration camps
· V-E Day (Victory in Europe)May 8, 1945 • BATTLE OF THE BULGE (BELGIUM) • LAST GERMAN OFFENSIVE OF WWII • DECEBMER 1944 • CLEARED WAY TO GERMANY • SOVIETS ATTACK FROM THE EAST • AMERICANS FROM THE WEST • TIED DOWN HUGE AMOUNTS OF ALLIED RESOURCES TAKE GERMANY
Red army soldiers raising the Soviet flag on the roof of the Reichstag (German Parliament) in Berlin, Germany.
Churchill waves to crowds in Britain after broadcasting to the nation that the war with Germany had been won,
ASIAN FRONT • DEFENSIVE FRONT AGAINST JAPAN • JAPAN HAD TAKEN OVER GUAM, WAKE, SINGAPORE AND PHILIPPINES • How do we get them back?
Island Hopping • The two main goals of the U.S. in the Pacific were: • I. to regain the Philippines. • II. to invade Japan. • The U.S. began a policy of island hopping, using islands as stepping-stones towards Japan.
ASIAN FRONT • February of 1945 • The U.S. recaptured the Philippines, Iwo Jima and Okinawa. • Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima: depicts five United States Marines and a U.S. Navy corpsman raising the flag of the United States atop Mount Suribachi during the Battle of Iwo Jima.
ASIAN FRONT: THE TIDE TURNS • BATTLE OF THE CORAL SEA -JAPAN WANTS TO TAKE AUSTRALIA -May 1942 -Japan loses -Japanese naval aviation begins to decline.
ASIAN FRONT CONTINUED • MIDWAY ISLAND -CODE BREAKERS READY AMERICANS FOR THE ATTACK. • TAKE OUT FOUR OF FIVE JAPANESE CARRIERS • It limited Japan's ability to attack Hawaii again or other Allied positions.
OTHER ASIAN BATTLES • MORE BLOODY BATTLES: -GUADALCANAL • SOLOMON ISLANDS • AMERICANS CUT OFF JAPANESE SUPPLY LINES • Became military base from which to counterattack the Japanese • IWO JIMA • OKINAWA • HEAVY CASUALTIES ON BOTH SIDES IN THESE BATTLES VICTORY IN THESE ISLANDS WIL BE KEY TO ALLIED VICTORY IN JAPAN