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Chapter 4 Field-Effect Transistors

Chapter 4 Field-Effect Transistors

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Chapter 4 Field-Effect Transistors

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  1. Chapter 4Field-Effect Transistors Microelectronic Circuit Design Richard C. Jaeger Travis N. Blalock Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap4-1

  2. Chapter Goals • Describe operation of MOSFETs and JFETs. • Define FET characteristics in operation regions of cutoff, triode and saturation. • Develop mathematical models for i-v characteristics of MOSFETs and JFETs. • Introduce graphical representations for output and transfer characteristic descriptions of electron devices. • Define and contrast characteristics of enhancement-mode and depletion-mode FETs. • Define symbols to represent FETs in circuit schematics. • Investigate circuits that bias transistors into different operating regions. • Learn basic structure and mask layout for MOS transistors and circuits. • Explore MOS device scaling Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-2

  3. Chapter Goals (contd.) • Contrast 3 and 4 terminal device behavior. • Descibe sources of capacitance in MOSFETs and JFETs. • Explore FET modeling in SPICE. Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-3

  4. Moore’s Law Intel co-founder Gordon Moore is a visionary. In 1965, his prediction, popularly known as Moore's Law, states that the number of transistors on a chip will double about every two years. Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill

  5. Moore’s Law (cont.) Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill

  6. Moore’s Law (cont.) Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill

  7. Moore’s Law (cont.) Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill

  8. Moore’s Law (cont.) Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill

  9. Moore’s Law (cont.) Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill

  10. Transistor History • Nobel prize for transistor (William Shockley) – link • History of transistors - link Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill

  11. Types of Field-Effect Transistors • MOSFET (Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor) • Primary component in high-density VLSI chips such as memories and microprocessors • JFET (Junction Field-Effect Transistor) • Finds application especially in analog and RF circuit design Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-11

  12. MOS Capacitor Structure • First electrode- Gate : Consists of low-resistivity material such as polycrystalline silicon • Second electrode- Substrate or Body: n- or p-type semiconductor • Dielectric-Silicon dioxide:stable high-quality electrical insulator between gate and substrate. Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-12

  13. Substrate Conditions for Different Biases • Accumulation • VG<<VTN • Depletion • VG<VTN • Inversion • VG>VTN Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-13

  14. Low-frequency C-V Characteristics for MOS Capacitor on P-type Substrate • MOS capacitance is non-linear function of voltage. • Total capacitance in any region dictated by the separation between capacitor plates. • Total capacitance modeled as series combination of fixed oxide capacitance and voltage-dependent depletion layer capacitance. Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-14

  15. NMOS Transistor: Structure • 4 device terminals: Gate(G), Drain(D), Source(S) and Body(B). • Source and drain regions form pn junctions with substrate. • vSB, vDSand vGS always positive during normal operation. • vSB always < vDS and vGS to reverse bias pn junctions Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-15

  16. NMOS Transistor: Qualitative I-V Behavior • VGS<<VTN : Only small leakage current flows. • VGS<VTN: Depletion region formed under gate merges with source and drain depletion regions. No current flows between source and drain. • VGS>VTN: Channel formed between source and drain. If vDS>0,, finite iD flows from drain to source. • iB=0 andiG=0. Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-16

  17. NMOS Transistor: Triode Region Characteristics for where, Kn= Kn’W/L Kn’=μnCox’’ (A/V2) Cox’’=εox/Tox εox=oxide permittivity (F/cm) Tox=oxide thickness (cm) Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-17

  18. NMOS Transistor: Triode Region Characteristics (contd.) • Output characteristics appear to be linear. • FET behaves like a gate-source voltage-controlled resistor between source and drain with Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-18

  19. MOSFET as Voltage-Controlled Resistor Example 1: Voltage-Controlled Attenuator If Kn=500μA/V2, VTN=1V, R=2kΩ and VGG=1.5V, then, If Kn=500μA/V2, VTN=1V, R=2kΩ and VGG=1.5V, then, To maintain triode region operation, or or Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-19

  20. MOSFET as Voltage-Controlled Resistor (contd.) Example 2: Voltage-Controlled High-Pass Filter Voltage Transfer function, where, cut-off frequency If Kn=500μA/V2, VTN=1V, C=0.02μF and VGG=1.5V, then, To maintain triode region operation, Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-20

  21. NMOS Transistor: Saturation Region • If vDS increases above triode region limit, channel region disappears, also said to be pinched-off. • Current saturates at constant value, independent of vDS. • Saturation region operation mostly used for analog amplification. Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-21

  22. NMOS Transistor: Saturation Region (contd.) for is also called saturation or pinch-off voltage Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-22

  23. State of the Art – 32 nm • Intel – power of smaller - link • 32nm high k metal gate transistor - link Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill

  24. Transconductance of a MOS Device • Transconductance relates the change in drain current to a change in gate-source voltage • Taking derivative of the expression for the drain current in saturation region, Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-24

  25. Channel-Length Modulation • As vDS increases abovevDSAT,length of depleted channel beyond pinch-off point, DL, increases and actual L decreases. • iD increases slightly with vDSinstead of being constant. l= channel length modulation parameter Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-25

  26. Depletion-Mode MOSFETS • NMOS transistors with • Ion implantation process used to form a built-in n-type channel in device to connect source and drain by a resistive channel • Non-zero drain current for vGS=0, negative vGS required to turn device off. Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-26

  27. Transfer Characteristics of MOSFETS • Plots drain current versus gate-source voltage for a fixed drain-source voltage Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-27

  28. Body Effect or Substrate Sensitivity • Non-zero vSBchanges threshold voltage, causing substrate sensitivity modeled by where VTO= zero substrate bias for VTN (V) g= body-effect parameter ( ) 2FF= surface potential parameter (V) Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-28

  29. Enhancement-Mode PMOS Transistors: Structure • P-type source and drain regions in n-type substrate. • vGS<0 required to create p-type inversion layer in channel region • For current flow, vGS< vTP • To maintain reverse bias on source-substrate and drain-substrate junctions, vSB <0 and vDB <0 • Positive bulk-source potential causes VTP to become more negative Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-29

  30. Enhancement-Mode PMOS Transistors: Output Characteristics • For , transistor is off. • For more negative vGS, drain current increases in magnitude. • PMOS is in triode region for small values of VDS and in saturation for larger values. Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-30

  31. MOSFET Circuit Symbols • (g) and(i) are the most commonly used symbols in VLSI logic design. • MOS devices are symmetric. • In NMOS, n+ region at higher voltage is the drain. • In PMOS p+ region at lower voltage is the drain Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-31

  32. 40 years of Moore’s Law and CPU • The history of microprocessor- link • The history of intel CPU – link • What did you do 40 years ago? - link • 45nm : biggest change to transistor in 40 years - link Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill

  33. Process-defining Factors • Minimum Feature Size, F : Width of smallest line or space that can be reliably transferred to wafer surface using given generation of lithographic manufacturing tools • Alignment Tolerance, T: Maximum misalignment that can occur between two mask levels during fabrication Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-33

  34. Mask Sequence for a Polysilicon-Gate Transistor • Mask 1: Defines active area or thin oxide region of transistor • Mask 2: Defines polysilicon gate of transistor, aligns to mask 1 • Mask 3: Delineates the contact window, aligns to mask 2. • Mask 4: Delineates the metal pattern, aligns to mask 3. • Channel region of transistor formed by intersection of first two mask layers. Source and Drain regions formed wherever mask 1 is not covered by mask 2 Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-34

  35. Basic Ground Rules for Layout • F=2Λ • T=F/2=L, L could be1, 0.5, 0.25 mm, etc. Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-35

  36. Internal Capacitances in Electronic Devices • Limit high-frequency performance of the electronic device they are associated with. • Limit switching speed of circuits in logic applications • Limit frequency at which useful amplification can be obtained in amplifiers. • MOSFET capacitances depend on operation region and are non-linear functions of voltages at device terminals. Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-36

  37. NMOS Transistor Capacitances: Triode Region Cox” =Gate-channel capacitance per unit area(F/m2). CGC =Total gate channel capacitance. CGS= Gate-source capacitance. CGD =Gate-drain capacitance. CGSO and CGDO = overlap capacitances (F/m). Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-37

  38. NMOS Transistor Capacitances: Triode Region (contd.) CSB = Source-bulk capacitance. CDB = Drain-bulk capacitance. ASand AD = Junction bottom area capacitance of the source and drain regions. PS and PD = Perimeter of the source and drain junction regions. Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-38

  39. NMOS Transistor Capacitances: Saturation Region • Drain no longer connected to channel Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-39

  40. NMOS Transistor Capacitances: Cutoff Region • Conducting channel region completely gone. CGB = Gate-bulk capacitance CGBO = gate-bulk capacitance per unit width. Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-40

  41. SPICE Model for NMOS Transistor Typical default values used by SPICE: Kn or Kp = 20 mA/V2 g = 0 l= 0 VTO = 1 V mn or mp= 600 cm2/V.s 2FF = 0.6 V CGDO=CGSO=CGBO=CJSW= 0 Tox= 100 nm Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-41

  42. Bias Analysis Approach • Assume an operation region (generally the saturation region) • Use circuit analysis to find VGS • Use VGS to calculate ID, and ID to find VDS • Check validity of operation region assumptions • Change assumptions and analyze again if required. NOTE :An enhancement-mode device with VDS = VGS is always in saturation Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-42

  43. Constant Gate-Source MOSFET Bias Circuit Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill

  44. Simplified MOSFET Bias Circuit Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill

  45. Loadline Analysis Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill

  46. Four-Resistor and Two-Resistor Biasing • Provide excellent bias for transistors in discrete circuits. • Stabilize bias point with respect to device parameter and temperature variations using negative feedback. • Use single voltage source to supply both gate-bias voltage and drain current. • Generally used to bias transistors in saturation region. • Two-resistor biasing uses lesser components that four-resistor biasing and also isolates drain and gate terminals Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-46

  47. Bias Analysis: Example 1 (Four-Resistor Biasing) Assumption: Transistor is saturated, IG=IB=0 Analysis: First, simplify circuit, split VDD into two equal-valued sources and apply Thevenin transformation to find VEQ and REQ for gate-bias voltage Problem: Find Q-pt (ID, VDS) Approach: Assume operation region, find Q-point, check to see if result is consistent with operation region Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-47

  48. Bias Analysis: Example 1 (Four-Resistor Biasing) (contd.) Since VGS<VTNfor VGS= -2.71 V and MOSFET will be cut-off, and ID= 34.4 mA Also, Since IG=0, VDS>VGS-VTN. Hence saturation region assumption is correct. Q-pt: (34.4 mA, 6.08 V) with VGS= 2.66 V Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-48

  49. Bias Analysis: Example 2 (Four-Resistor Biasing) Analysis with body effect using same assumptions as in example 1: • Estimate value of ID and use it to find VGS and VSB • Use VSB to calculate VTN • Find ID’ using above 2 steps • If ID’ is not same as original ID estimate, start again. Iterative solution can be found by following steps: Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-49

  50. Bias Analysis: Example 2 (Four-Resistor Biasing) (contd.) The iteration sequence leads to ID= 88.0 mA VDS>VGS-VTN. Hence saturation region assumption is correct. Q-pt: (88.0 mA, 6.48 V) Microelectronic Circuit Design McGraw-Hill Chap1-50