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  1. Pain Kate Black Kate Brazzale Lisa Molony

  2. Pain • Aetiology • Disorder/Disease • Clinical Manifestations • Pathophysiology • Diagnosis • Pharmacological Management • Non-Pharmacological Management • Complications • Implications for Nursing Practice

  3. What is pain? According to the International Association for the Society of Pain, Pain is“an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage”. http:/www.iasppain.orgContentNavigationMenuGeneralResourceLinks/PainDefinitions/default.htm

  4. Aetiology: What causes pain? • “Pain can be due to a wide variety of diseases, disorders and conditions that range from a mild injury to a debilitating disease”.

  5. Aetiology: What causes pain? Kate, if you want this picure it’s not problem, just delete this slide,

  6. Acute Pain “The terms acute and chronic refer exclusively to the time course of the pain, irrespective of aetiology” (Craft, Gordon, and Tiziani, 2011, p.144). Acute Pain: • Usually lasts less than 3 months • Sudden onset • Usually well defined • Predicable ending (healing) • Can lead to chronic pain if left untreated • Examples: cut to the finger, broken bone

  7. Chronic Pain Chronic Pain: • Persistent or recurring pain • Continues for more than 3 months • May last for months or even years • Can be difficult to diagnose and treat • Primary goal is not total pain relief but reducing pain relief • Examples include: arthritis and back pain

  8. Categories of pain Another way to categorise pain is on the basis of origin: • Nociceptive • Neuropathic • Psychogenic

  9. Nociceptive Pain Nociceptive pain is directly related to tissue damage and can be either external (somatic) or internal (visceral) External / Somatic • Most common type of pain • Can be superficial -in the skinbut may extend to the underlying tissues. • Usually described as: sharp, shooting, throbbing, burning, stinging • well defined area • Usually lasts from a few seconds to a few days • Examples include: paper cut, sprained ankle

  10. Nociceptive Pain Internal / Visceral (Deep) • Less common and usually more severe • Originates in the walls of visceral organs • Poorly defined area • Described as: deep, aching, pressing or aching • Usually lasts a few days to weeks • Virtually a symptom of all diseases at some point during disease progression. • Often associated with feeling sick • Examples include: Major surgery, labour pain, irritable bowel.

  11. Neuropathic Pain • Injury or disease of the central nervous system rather than the peripheral tissue. • May be due to nerve compression, inflammation or trauma • Usually lasts between a few months to many years. • Difficult to treat due to the lack of knowledge of the underlying cause. • Often associated with paraesthesia, hyperalgesia and allodynia • Burning, shooting or pins and needles (not sharp like nociceptive).

  12. Psychogenic Pain • Psychological, psychiatric or psychosocial at the primary causes • Severe and persistent pain • Appears to have no underlying pathology. • Less common now due to medical technology • Pain experienced (Headaches, abdominal pain, back pain) is indistinguishable from that experienced by people with identifiable injuries or diseases. • This kind of pain can be very frustrating to sufferers and can interfere with their ability to function normally.

  13. Clinical Manifestations Pain Tolerance: The maximum level of pain that a person is able to tolerate without seeking avoidance of the pain or relief What affects Pain Tolerance? • Fatigue, anger, boredom, apprehension, sleep deprivation. Alcohol consumption, medication, hypnosis, warmth, distracting activities and strong beliefs or faiths. “No two people are likely to experience the same level of pain for a given painful stimulus” (Craft et al., 2011, p.150).

  14. Clinical Manifestations Pain tolerance is influenced by a number of factors including; • Age • Cultural perceptions • Expectations • Gender • Physical and mental health

  15. Clinical Manifestations Age: • Different reaction to pain • Understanding of pain Gender: • “Females display greater sensitivity to pain than males do. There are differences in the way women cope with pain, report pain and respond to pain” (Crisp & Taylor, 2009, p.1096). Physical & Mental Health • Physical mobility • Depression, difficulty coping, fatigue.

  16. Cultural Variations Cultures vary in the meaning of pain, how if it expressed and how it is treated: • Meaning • Expression • Treatment

  17. Pain Threshold • Pain Threshold is the lowest point at which pain can be felt • Entirely subjective • May vary from person to person but changes little in the same individual over time.

  18. Location It is important record a patients pain location to be able to monitor any changes. Pain can feel like it is coming from one part of the body but in fact it is another, this type of pain is called referred pain.

  19. Signs and Symptoms: Signs: • Change in temperature • Blood pressure • Respiratory rate • Heart rate • Short of breath • Sweating • Pallor • Dilated pupils • Swelling • Symptoms: • Fatigue • Feeling sick • Weakness • Numbness • Tenderness • Change in behaviour • Unable to sleep

  20. pathophysiology

  21. pathophysiology

  22. Diagnosis • Diagnosis of Pain is complicated. • To diagnose pain, Nurses rely on • Objective Data. • Visual signs. • Subjective Data. • Patients descriptions. • Characteristics of Pain.

  23. diagnosis • Characteristics of Pain • OPQRST Mnemonic • Onset • Provocation • Quality • Region/Radiation • Severity • Time

  24. diagnosis • Onset • What was the patient doing at the time? • What precipitated the pain? • Provocation • Aggravating Factors: • What causes the Pain to increase? • Alleviating Factors: • What makes it better or worse?

  25. diagnosis 3.Quality • Get the patient to describe their pain to you in specific terms. • What does it feel like? 4. Region/Radiation • Where is the pain? • Where does the pain radiate? • Is it in one place? • Does it go anywhere else? • Did it start elsewhere and now localised to a different spot?

  26. diagnosis 5. Severity • Pain Rating • On a scale of 1 to 10, 10 being the worst pain you have experienced, what number would you assign to your discomfort? • Does their pain change with medication? • Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale. • Used for • Children • People whose first language is not English.

  27. diagnosis

  28. diagnosis 6. Time • When did the pain start? • How long has the patient has this pain? • Are there any Associated Phenomena? • Factors consistent with pain e.g. Anxiety • Physiological responses • Sympathetic stimulation • Parasympathetic stimulation • Vital signs, skin colour, perspiration, pupil size, nausea, muscle tension, anxiety • Behavioural Responses • Posture, gross motor activities

  29. Diagnostic Tests Tests to verify pain. • CT/CAT scan • Computed Tomography or Computed Axial Tomography • X-rays to produce an image of a cross-section of the body. • MRI Scan • Large magnet, radio waves and a computer produces detailed images of the body. • Discography/Myelograms • A contrast dye is injected into the spinal disk to enhance the X-Ray.

  30. Diagnostic - Tests • EMG (Electromyography) • Evaluate the activity of the muscles. • Bone Scans • Diagnose and monitor infection and fracture of the bone • Ultrasound Imaging • High frequency sound waves to develop an image of the affected area.

  31. Diagnostic Tests • Psychological Assessment • Psychosocial involvement. • Questionnaires.

  32. GENERAL PRINCIPLES of pain management • Treat the cause of pain where possible, not just the symptom • Make accurate diagnosis and assessment of pain extent and type to ensure appropriate analgesic prescription • Keep the patient pain free • Dose at regular specified intervals, particularly for chronic pain (rather than PRN) • Avoid the chronic pain stress cycle and 'sick role‘ • Follow the WHO analgesia ladder • Prevent adverse effects of opioids • Develop a patient management plan

  33. Pharmacological management • WHO has developed a three-step ladder for pain relief • If pain occurs, the use of oral of drugs should be administered in the following order: • non-opioids • mild opioids • strong opioids Image: World Health Organization

  34. Pharmacological management • Involves the management of pain through analgesics • Analgesic: a compound that relieves pain by altering perception of nociceptive stimuli without producing anaesthesia or loss of consciousness • Three types of analgesics: • Opioids (narcotic) analgesics • Non-opioid analgesics (NSAIDs) • Adjuvants (DISCUSS HERE WHAT ADJUVANTS ARE OR ADD IN A SLIDE LATER)

  35. Pharmacological management • Routes of administration: • Oral • Intravenously • Continuous infusion (via SC or IV routes) • Rectally • Transdermal administration • Inhalation

  36. Opioids • Generally prescribed for moderate – severe pain • Act on CNS by binding with opiate receptors to modify perception and reaction to pain • The most commonly used opioid is morphine

  37. opioids • Add table of commonly used opioids, advantages/disadvantages

  38. Opioids • Adverse drug reactions may include: • respiratory depression • excessive sedation • constipation • nausea • vomiting • tolerance • dependence • dysphoria (a mood of general dissatisfaction, restlessness, anxiety)

  39. nsaids • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs • Used to treat mild – moderate pain • Work by acting on peripheral nerve receptors to reduce transmission and reception of pain stimuli • Common NSAIDs include: • Paracetamol • Aspirin • Ibuprofen • Naxopren (arthritis)

  40. nsaids • Adverse reactions may include: • gastrointestinal tract disorders (dyspepsia, nausea and vomiting, diarrhoea/constipation) • renal damage • asthma attacks • skin reactions • sodium retention and consequent heart failure and hypertension • Large overdoses of paracetamol can cause fatal acute liver damage if not promptly treated.

  41. nsaids Aspirin vsParacetamol • Aspirin is readily available OTC. It can be used in stroke prevention due to its anti-platelet qualities. • In normal doses, paracetamol is a safer OTC analgesic than aspirin for the following reasons: • adverse effects and allergic reactions are rare with therapeutic doses • there is low risk of gastic upset, renal impairment or peptic ulceration compared with aspirin • plasma protein binding is negligible (no risk of displacement causing drug interactions) • few serious adverse drug interactions • may be used by children • safe to use during pregnancy and lactation

  42. Include slide on adjuvants?

  43. Pharmacological management Other drugs useful for analgesic effects • GABA analogues • Capsaicin • Local anasthetics (e.g. lignocaine) • General anasthetics (e.g. halothane, nitrous oxide) • Ethanol or phenol • Cannabinoids • Specific anti-migraine drugs • Herbal remedies (e.g. cloves, feverfew, kava kava, St John's wort, ginger, ginseng)

  44. Non-Pharmacological management • Definition? • Useful for patients who: • find such interventions appealing • express anxiety and/or fear • may benefit from avoiding or reducing drug therapy • are likely to need to cope with a prolonged interval of post-operative pain • have incomplete pain relief after use of pharmacological interventions • are able to use the intervention without assistance (TENS, heat packs)

  45. Non-Pharmacological management • RICE (rest, ice, compression, elevation) • Physiotherapy • Counter-irritants • TENS • Acupuncture • Psychotherapeutic methods • Surgery • Community support groups • Complementary and alternative medicine - aromatherapy, herbal medicines, spinal manipulation

  46. Hot and cold therapy • From: Clinical Psychomotor Skills pg 153

  47. psychotherapeutic • Psychotherapeutic methods - hypnosis, behaviour modification, biofeedback, techniques, assertiveness training, art and music therapy, the placebo effect • More info on this – find some journals • Heaps of info in Crisp & Taylor

  48. Tens Machine

  49. Tens Machine TENS MACHINE

  50. Complications