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A High Altitude Inflatable -Winged Aircraft

A High Altitude Inflatable -Winged Aircraft

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A High Altitude Inflatable -Winged Aircraft

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  1. A High Altitude Inflatable -Winged Aircraft Baseline Balloon Inflatable Launch Glider Unmanned Experiment BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  2. Core Team • Student team leaders • Justin Kearns, Overall Team and Mechanical Engineering Technical Lead • Mike Carter, Project Manager • Aaron Welch, Electrical Engineering Technical Lead • Advisors • Dr. Suzanne Weaver Smith, Principal Investigator and System Integration • Dr. Jamey Jacob, Aeronautics • Dr. William Smith, Communications and Power • Dr. James Lumpp, Flight Control and Power • Sponsors • National Space Grant Consortium via Kentucky Space Grant Consortium • NASA EPSCOR • ILC Dover, Inc. • UK VP of Research BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  3. The General Plan • Phase 1 and 2: 1.5 hour • ascent at a constant rate • Phase 2 begins prior to • balloon release • Phase 3: 2.5 hour descent BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  4. Motivations • Low density (low Re) aircraft • High altitude defense • Marscraft • To overcome this challenge: larger • wing span • Problem: costly to launch such • large structures • Solution: Inflatable wings BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  5. Design and development of softgoods products for both government and industry Experienced NASA contractor spacesuit design flexible space structures ILC Dover BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  6. CU Balloon Launch • Edge of Space Sciences (EOSS) • a Colorado based non-profit organization that explores frontiers in amateur radio and high altitude ballooning BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  7. October 2002 - core team formed, grant awarded, ILC Dover, Inc. visit November 2002 - balloon launch in Colorado December 2002 - wing design completed, control system design completed and tested January 2003 - NASA Langley, Wallops Island, UAT & NASA Marshall visits February 2003 - Final verification tests March 2003 - Critical Design Review, 1st Flight Readiness Review, 1st BIG BLUE Satellite launch May 2003 – 2nd Flight Readiness Review, 2nd BIG BLUE Satellite launch August 2003 - flight data reduction and analysis Project Time-Line BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  8. Balloon Launch Basics • Density and pressure drop exponentially • 30 km: ralt=rsl/60, Palt=Psl/100 • Temperature drops linearly in the troposphere, then stabilizes in the stratosphere until increasing again BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  9. High Altitude Conditions BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  10. Team Organization BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  11. Wing Design (X-foil) • Aerodynamic analysis • X-Foil software • Conduct analysis under: • Low Reynolds number • 50,000 ~ 200,000 • Various angles of attack • Lift and Drag coefficients obtained determine performance • Pressure distribution may then be established BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  12. Wing Design (Airfoil Selection) • Five different airfoils were selected based on efficiency of airfoils under low-Reynolds number conditions and analyzed using X-foil. (dae11, dae31, e387, e398 and s7012). • After these were examined by ILC Dover, airfoil e398 was selected based on manufacturability. BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  13. Wing Design (ANSYS) • Finite element analysis • ANSYS 6.1 software • “Bumpy” airfoil coordinates were provided by ILC • Pressure distributions obtained from X-Foil were applied on the top and bottom surfaces • Wing material modeled as cured • Static and Modal analyses were performed • Objective was to determine the maximum stress to define the number of composite layers BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  14. Wing Design (Prototype) • UK Rapid-Prototyping lab created (using stereo-lithography) the two types of wing test sections for the selected airfoil BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  15. Wing Design (Test setup) • Prototypes will then be tested in the UK low-turbulence wind tunnel • Tunnel test section: 24” x 24” cross section and 48” length • 50-hp motor drives 50 m/s with free-stream turbulence levels less than 1/2% • additional wind-tunnel with smaller test section (8” x 16”) and lower velocity (35 m/s) is also available BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  16. Wing Design (Verification) • X-foil verification for other airfoils (e387 and s7012) was first accomplished using wind tunnel test data available from UIUC • UIUCconducts low-speed airfoil testing (data found athttp://www.aae.uiuc.edu/mselig/uiuc_lsat.html ) • Wind tunnel tests of our smooth e398 airfoil will be compared to X-foil data to verify our testing process • Wind-tunnel tests of the bumpy airfoil will then be conducted and compared to the ideal section • One question to be resolved is loss at the trailing edge BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  17. Flight Control I • Who? Fall 2002 ME 412 group • Autonomous Flight Control via a closed loop feedback control system • Information System: GPS and Gyroscopic Feedback • Microprocessor Controller to Control Attitude and Flight Path • Low altitude verification tests via rigid wing glider BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  18. Flight Control I • Autonomous flight capability: MP1100 control system • central microprocessor integrates accelerometers, gyroscopes, an altimeter, a pitot tube, and GPS • components allow capability of airspeed hold, altitude hold, turn coordination, and GPS navigation BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  19. Flight Control I • Control System Components BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  20. Flight Control I • MP1100 offers versatile programming options • numerous configurations accessible through onboard flash memory • Capable of multi-routine program loops • Emergency or failsafe routines • PID loops and adjustable gains BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  21. Flight Control II • Who? Spring 2003 ME 412 group • Low altitude Micropilot testing • Integrating UK Autopilot into BIG BLUE aircraft • UK Autopilot low altitude testing • Meet payload constraints (power and weight) BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  22. Wing Deployment • Who? Spring 2003 ME 412 group • Inflatable tube deployment simulation • Analytically predicts tube deployment sequence • Plenum design and inflation method • Meet payload constraints (power and weight) • Thermal vacuum chamber verification tests BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  23. Wing Deployment • Vacuum chamber testing to explore expansion methods BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  24. Data Acquisition • Who? Spring 2003 ME 412 group • Instrumentation and data acquisition • Cameras • Environmental condition measurements • Flight performance • Meet payload constraints (power and weight) • Equipment calibration • Ground testing BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  25. RF/Digital Communications • Who? Spring 2003 EE 499 group • Communication of control signals and data; APRS/GPS System interface • Verification tests • Temperature • Moisture • Meet payload constraints (power and weight) • Integration and testing BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  26. Power • Who? Spring 2003 EE 499 group • Verification, temperature tests • Develop power budget – set constraints for other subsystems • Integrated effort with inflation and data acquisition BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  27. Flight Control Sensors/Programming • Who? Spring 2003 EE 587 group • Design, build autopilot based on MicroPilot design • AHRS unit: gyros and sensors for roll, pitch, yaw heading • Crossbow is a possible purchase • GPS certification to top speeds above 60k feet • AHRS, APRS, GPS interface BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  28. Structural/Integration • Who? Spring 2003 ME 380 group • Planform design • Fuselage • Wing mounting • Internal mounting hardware and orientation, abort parachute • Manipulate component placement for optimal C.G. • Overall tracking of payload weight budget • Tail control surfaces • Meet payload constraints BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  29. Launch/Recovery • Volunteer opportunities: • Critical Design Reviewers • Flight Readiness / Safety Reviews • UK BIG BLUE website design • Tracking interface to “watch” flights • Lat/Long coordinates • Altitude data packets • Live camera feed • www.findu.com BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  30. Risk Mitigation • Volunteer opportunity • Risk identification • Likelihood and severity ranking of risks • Development of solutions and verification tests in order to alleviate these risks • Examples: • Premature rigidization of wings • Batteries die early • Transceiver malfunctions as a result of low temperatures BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  31. Outreach • Volunteer opportunity: • BIG BLUE t-shirts • E-Day demonstrations and exhibit booth • Talks to K-12 schools; science fun days, etc. BIG BLUE Satellite Program

  32. Overall Objectives • Fall 2002 • Flight control verification • Design and build rigid wing glider • Test at low altitude • Inflated wing design completed • Spring 2003 • Establish remaining subsystem teams • Design and build high altitude system • Verification testing • Balloon launch (late March – early May 2003) • Data reduction and analysis through August 2003 BIG BLUE Satellite Program