Chapter 4 Section 2 Declaring Independence
Bell-Ringer 4.2 Unscramble the letters in each underlined word to reveal the solution to each clue. • ADCILONATRE of GRSTIH Clue: Delegates at the First Continental Congress wrote this document. 2. NAGSNTIWOH Clue: This general received command of the Continental Army • EKRUNB LIHL Clue: In this battle, the colonists proved they could take on the British. If YOU were there...You live on a farm in New York in 1776. The conflicts with the British have torn your family apart. Your father is loyal to King George and wants to remain British. But your mother is a fierce Patriot, and your brother wants to join the Continental Army. Your father and others who feel the same way are moving to British-held Canada. Now you must decide what you will do. Would you go to Canada or support the Patriots?
Declaring Independence 4.2 The Big Idea The colonies formally declared their independence from Great Britain. Main Ideas • Colonists had to choose sides when independence was declared. • The Declaration of Independence did not address the rights of all colonists.
Thomas Paine’s Common Sense led many colonists to support independence. • Common Sense:47-page pamphlet written by Thomas Paine, published in January 1776. • Urged separation from Great Britain. • Argued that citizens, not monarchs, should make laws. • Argued for economic freedom and the right to military self-defense. • Cried out against tyranny: the abuse of government power. • Reached a wide audience, selling around 500,000 copies.
The Declaration! • The Latin phrase “E pluribus Unum” became the motto of the new union of states-- meaning “OUT OF MANY, ONE” • Second Continental Congress created a committee in June 1776 to write a document declaring independence. • Thomas Jefferson was the main author. • Declaration of Independence formally announced America’s intent to split with Great Britain. • Formally approved on July 4, 1776.
Jefferson’s arguments • King George III violated the colonists rights by taxing them without their consent! • Stated that the colonies had the RIGHT to break from Great Britain- influenced by the John Locke’s idea of the social contract • Argued that ALL people possess unalienable rights–rights that you are born with and can never be taken away from you– “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness”
Choosing Sides Patriots • Patriots chose to fight for independence. • About 40 to 45 percent of Americans were Patriots Loyalists • Loyalists remained loyal to Britain and the king. • About 20 to 30 percent of Americans were Loyalists. Neutral • About 25 percent of Americans remained neutral.
The Declaration of Independence did not address the rights of all colonists. • Declaration ignored many colonists. • Did not address the rights of women. Abigail Adams wrote “Remember the Ladies!” • Did not recognize the rights of enslaved African Americans. • Did not address the rights of Native Americans to life, liberty, or property.