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  1. Welcome! SFTY 314 Safety Legislation November 13, 2012

  2. Today

  3. What does an OSHA Inspector do? What skills are needed?

  4. How do future safety professionals learn how to develop safety radar?

  5. Your Safety Radar

  6. Class Discussion

  7. How do you develop your safety radar?

  8. Techniques for Hazard • Recognition • 2 Days / 1.4 CEUs • Learn to: • Use a variety of hazard recognition methods • select the appropriate hazard recognition method for your organization • Establish a management system that develops, implements and audits routinely the various hazard recognition techniques needed • Train your workforce on a variety of techniques for hazard recognition

  9. What’s wrong with this photo?

  10. Exit must not be blocked by storage.  • Exit door must swing outward.  • Exit door should have panic hardware or open with minimal force.  • Looks like there are unapproved temporary wires run from electric line servicing exit sign.   • Other observations: a) poor housekeeping; b) uncovered telecommunications panel and disorderly arrangement of phone lines.

  11. Video

  12. What is Behavior-Based Safety?

  13. Behavior-Based Safety Behavior-Based Safety is a process that helps employees identify and choose a safe behavior over an unsafe one. Handout

  14. Behavior Based Safety Gary Peacock Safety Consultant Ohio BWC

  15. Objectives • The benefits of behavior-based systems. • The basic principles of how to motivate safe behavior. • A company’s readiness for behavior-based safety. • Compare and contrast the different behavior-based systems on the market today.

  16. Why Safety Programs Do Not Work: • Safety is a priority, not a value! • Safety is not managed in the same manner as production, quality, and cost issues! • Safety is not driven through continuous improvement!

  17. “Fallacies or Realities” in Safety Fables? • Conditions cause accidents! • Enforcing rules improves safety! • Safety professionals can keep workers safe! • Low accident rates indicate safety programs are working well! • Investigating to find the root cause of accidents will improve safety! • Awareness training improves safety! • Rewards improve safety!

  18. Core Elements in Successful Safety Programs • A culture that says “safety” is important around here! • A tight accountability system!

  19. Behavior Based Safety: What Is It? • An excellent tool for collecting data on the quality of a company’s safety management system • A scientific way to understand why people behave the way they do when it comes to safety • Properly applied, an effective next step towards creating a truly pro-active safety culture where loss prevention is a core value • Conceptually easy to understand but often hard to implement and sustain

  20. Behavior Based Safety: What It Is Not! • Only about observation and feedback • Concerned only about the behaviors of line employees • A substitution for traditional risk management techniques • About cheating & manipulating people & aversive control • A focus on incident rates without a focus on behavior • A process that does not need employee involvement

  21. Obstacles To Success: • Poorly Maintained Facilities • Top-down Management Practices • Poor Planning/Execution • Inadequate Training

  22. Keys to Success: • Meaningful Employee Empowerment • Designing a Well Planned and Supported BBS Process • Managing BBS Process with Integrity

  23. What percentage of accidents are a result of: • Unsafe conditions, OSHA violations, dangerous equipment? _____% • Unsafe actions, at-risk behaviors, poor decisions? _____%

  24. What percentage of accidents are a result of: • Unsafe conditions, OSHA violations, dangerous equipment? 6% • Unsafe actions, at-risk behaviors, poor decisions? 94%

  25. Therefore, compliance is necessarybut not sufficient for great safety.Safety is about people, and behavior is the challenge.

  26. Fatality Major Minor Injury Property Damage Near Miss (hit) At-risk Behaviors

  27. Traditional Safety Safety Training Slogans Regulations Reprimands Policies Fewer Accidents Contests & Awards Safety Meetings Committees & Councils

  28. Safety Activities Fewer Accidents Behavior Based Safety Fewer at-risk Behaviors

  29. What Behavior-based is... Safe People vs Safe Places Injuries Equal Management Errors Behavior Management Measure Behaviors vs Results Observation & Feedback Positive Reinforcement

  30. Organizational Performance Model Systems Behaviors Great Performance Climate

  31. Systems • Accountability • Communication • Decision Making • Measurement • Orientation • Training • Employment • Auditing

  32. Honesty and Integrity Ask for help without taking responsibility Recognition Observation and feedback Trust Listen with empathy Behaviors

  33. Climate Variables • Confidence/trust • Interest in people • Understanding problems • Training/helping • Teaching to solve problems • Much information • Approachability • Recognition - Rensis Likert

  34. Turn & Talk • What is the primary purpose of a supervisor? • What is the most effective way to motivate people?

  35. Human Behavior is a function of : ðActivators (what needs to be done) ðCompetencies (how it needs to be done) ðConsequences (what happens if it is done)

  36. Human behavior is both: ð Observable ð Measurable therefore Behavior can be managed !

  37. AttitudesAre inside a person’s head -therefore they are notobservable or measurable however Attitudes can be changed by changing behaviors

  38. ABC Model Antecedents (trigger behavior) Behavior (human performance) Consequences (either reinforce or punish behavior)

  39. Definitions: Activators: A person, place, thing or event that happens before a behavior takes place that encourages you to perform that behavior. Activators only set the stage for behavior or performance - they don’t controlit.

  40. Some examples of activators

  41. Definitions: Behavior:Any directly measurable thing that a person does, including speaking, acting, and performing physical functions.

  42. Some examples of behavior:

  43. Definitions: Consequences: Events that follow behaviors. Consequences increase or decrease the probability that the behaviors will occur again in the future. If you don’t send in that payment we’ll take you to court Oh please let it be Bob!

  44. Behavioral Model B = f (c) Antecedents Behaviors Consequences

  45. Some example of Consequences:

  46. Consequences - How would you view them? Sunbathing Aggressive Drivers

  47. Only 4 Types of Consequences: • Positive Reinforcement (R+) ("Do this & you'll be rewarded") • Negative Reinforcement (R-) ("Do this or else you'll be penalized") Punishment (P) ("If you do this, you'll be penalized") • Extinction (E) ("Ignore it and it'll go away") Behavior

  48. Consequences Influence Behaviors Based Upon Individual Perceptions of: Magnitude - large or small { • Significance- positive or negative Impact - personal or other Timing - immediate or future Consistency - certain or uncertain