Chapter 10 A Nation Expands (1800-1873)
Important Terms Pemmican – a food made of dried buffalo meat, buffalo fat, and berries. One kilogram of pemmican was considered equal to four kilograms of ordinary meat and it would last for years. It was an ideal food for long journeys. Social Problems – problems concerning life in a community, problems between people that arise in day to day living. Eg. The majority of farmers do not have enough food to eat. Scurvy – a disease caused by a lack of Vitamin C Metis – People of mixed North American Indian and European ancestry (history).
Westward Expansion of Canada 1867 Why did Canada grow in size from 1867 to 1873? (6 years) • Rupert’s Land was sold to Canada and became North West Territories • The Colony of British Columbia Joined Confederation 1873
Think/Pair/Share With a partner – read page 209 and answer the following questions: • Which groups lived between Rocky Mountains and the Great Lakes? • Who controlled the area of Rupert’s Land?
Rupert’s Land • In 1870, there were 30 000 to 40 000 Native people living in the area between the Great Lakes and the Rocky mountains and were spread over a large area. • Native groups that lived in this region were Ojibwa, Cree, Sarcee, Assiniboine, and the Blackfoot.
Native People in Rupert’s Land • The fur trade changed the life style of native people. Before, the plains people were famous for hunting buffalo; NOW native people worked in the fur trade and stopped hunting the buffalo. • Women usually made pemmican; men trapped animals and traded the furs at local trading posts for metal pots and tools, cloth and guns. • Natives became dependent on the fur trade.
Assiniboia – The Red River Settlement Location: Manitoba Owner: Lord Selkirk Selkirk is a Scottish nobleman (rich guy from Britain) who felt bad for the crofters (people who rent and farm small pieces of land) who had been thrown off their land by large landowners to raise sheep. Selkirk was able to get a land grant of 300 000 sq/km in the valley of Red and Assiniboine rivers. Another reason for established a colony in this area was to stop North West Company from competing with the HBC for furs. This area and community was inhabited by Metis and Natives who supplied the North West Company workers with pemmican and other provisions.
Lord Selkirk (1771-1820) • Real name was Thomas Douglas • Was a liberal democrat (had sympathy for the poor) • Inherited and invested substantial stock into HBC to gain enough power to negotiate a land deal in 1810.
Lord Selkirk (1771-1820) • Was the 7th son of a Scottish Earl • Younger sons usually prepared themselves for careers in law, the government or the military because it was the eldest son who inherited the estate and titles. Lord Selkirk went to university to study to be a lawyer. While in university became interested in social problems. • Selkirk’s order brothers died unexpectedly and eventually he was left as the heir to the family fortune. He decided to use his family wealth and fortune to help Scottish farmers who were displaced from the lands.
What Selkirk was thinking? If I purchase this land I can help people from my country start a new life! Settling them in the Red River area could help stop the Nor’Westers who compete against the HBC. I own the HBC – that will make me rich!!
Think/Pair/Share Discuss with your partner the definition of “Social Problems”. Next, try to identify some of the social problems that might exist here in Jinshitan, Dalian or China? World?
First Settlement The first group of 80 Scottish settlers arrived at York Factory, a Hudson’s Bay Company fur fort, in the winter of 1811. They experienced hard conditions during the winter (cold, poor food, and scurvy). In the spring they set out on the 420 km journey to the Red River Valley in late August (too late to plant crops) and no preparations had been made for their arrival. They suffered through another difficult winter. They survived from the help of the Metis and because they were able to buy food.
Metis reaction to Settlers - Settlers were met with considerable opposition (were not welcome) because the Metis and Native people’s lives depended on trade with the Nor’Westers (Traders of the North West Company). People in the Red River area believed these Scottish settlers were sent to stop or disrupt trading practices and to block the trading supplies of pemmican that were being brought to the fur trading posts.
Fears of Metis and Natives- Metis and Native People didn’t like the arrival of Scottish Settlers because: • They believed they were sent (by HBC) to disrupt their trading practices and way of life. (Metis traded with and worked for the NWC) • They had farmed and worked the land for many generations but had no legal rights to it according to the Canadian government or Hudson Bay Company (documentation) • Were scared that with more settlers arriving food would become scarce and wouldn’t be able to trade with the NWC.
Pemmican Proclamation The “Pemmican Proclamation” – settlers were having difficulty finding food so the governor issued a law that stated, “no food could be taken from Assiniboia without a permission from the governor.
Think/Pair/Share What did the Metis people in the Red River area do with the Pemmican?
Seven Oaks Incident – Leading up to Incident - The Pemmican Proclamation greatly angered the metis and native people living in the Red River region. They felt that Governor Macdonnell had no right to pass laws in their land. Some believed they should burn and destroy the homes and crops of the Scottish settlers. Others believed they should barricade Fort Douglas until the colonist inside the fort came out desperate for food. Incident - After barricading the fort, Governor in Chief of Rupert’s Land and a group of armed men went out to find what Grant and the Metis were doing. They met at a place called Seven Oaks. Historians are not sure who fired the first shot, but there was a brief battle and one metis and 20 settlers (including the Governor Semple) were dead.
Settlers coming to Red River Area • In 1843, there were 5000 people in the Red River Settlement (1000 were Caucasian and 4000 were Metis) • There was another group of Selkirk settlers who came to the Red River Area, which further angered the Metis. • After confederation (1867) many people began to come to settle in the Red River area.
History of the Metis • Metis nation was created when English, Scot, or French fur traders married Native women. Because of these intermarriages, the Metis had a varied background. • Most spoke English or French and at least one native language. • Metis usually worked in the fur trade as labourers, interpreters, trappers or company clerks.
Buffalo Hunt Similar to the Plains people, the buffalo hunt was an important part of the Metis life. It supplied food, material and a way of life for the Metis people. The buffalo hunt was held at least once a year and allowed hunters to prove themselves.
Rules of Buffalo Hunt There were strict rules for the buffalo hunt: • No hunting on Sunday • No one was to lag behind, go ahead, or go off in a different direction from the main hunting group. • No one was to start the buffalo running before the order was given • Anyone caught stealing was to be publicly humiliated.
Metis Farms Similar to the French system of farming (Seigneurial System) farmers arranged their land in long strips along the river. The Metis were afraid that if the Red River Settlement was annexed by Canada it would be forced to have the block method of farming.
Think/Pair/Share Why would the Metis prefer strips of land opposed to blocks of land? See p.145
Canada’s Interest in Rupert’s Land The Canadian Government was interested in Rupert’s Land for several Reasons: • Had good farmland • Very little farmland left in Upper Canada. • Canada government wanted to expand westward. “Ocean to Ocean” • There was fear the United States would annex Rupert’s Land soon. • The settlement below Red River area had a population of 300 000 by 1865.
Rupert’s Land Act, 1868 The Canadian Government decided to buy Rupert’s Land from the Hudson Bay Company for $ 1.5 million (8,700,000 rmb). The HBC kept their forts and were given land in the west. Rupert’s Land was now called the North-West Territories. The Canadian government had no plans to make any part of North West Territories into a Province.
Think/Pair/Share See Newspaper front page on pg. 215. Discuss with your partner: • How this picture is biased? • Who is it biased towards? • Identify specifically what makes it biased?
Important Terms Insubordination: Not submissive to authority or is disobedient to a lawful authority Amnesty: pardon, usually for political offences List of Rights: a list of conditions that the Metis wanted the government to meet and enforce. Provisional Government: a temporary government set up until a more permanent one can be established. Surveyors: they measure and divide land into parcels (sections).
Government Surveyors Before the land transfer from HBC to Canada, the government sent land Surveyors to the Red River area to divide the land into large squares similar to the block system used in Ontario. Both the Metis and settlers were surprised to see the surveyors. No one from Ottawa has ever been sent out to ask the people for their opinions about becoming part of Canada or inform them of their plans. The Metis were angry; they took away the measuring chains used by the surveyors, which caused them to leave.
Red River Resistance The Metis were angry that the Canadian government was sending land surveyors to divide the land and were angry the Red River area was going to be part of Canada even though nobody asked their permission. The Metis formed the National Committee of Metis (NCM) with Louis Riel as the leader.
Think/Pair/Share Why were the Metis upset about having the surveyors coming to Red River. Red River Resistance vs. Red River Rebellion… how are these two ways of describing the events in Red River Area different.
National Committee of Metis Once the national committee of Metis (NCM) was formed they did several things to take action: • Stop the newly appointed lieutenant-governor, William McDougall from entering Red River (he was for westward expansion and didn’t represent the Metis) • Seize Fort Garry, which was the Headquarters of the Hudson’s Bay Company in Red River and controlled the settlement. • Created a List of Rights – the conditions by which they would join confederation. • Create a Provisional Government -
Louis Riel (1844-1885) Louis Riel was the political leader of the Metis people in the Red River area. His father was a leader of the metis and grandmother was one of the first European women to come to the Northwest. Riel was sent to Montreal to study for priesthood, but decided it wasn’t for him and studied law. Riel returned to Red River area. Because of his fluency of the French and English Language and his pride of the Metis culture this made him a natural leader. Riel fought to make Manitoba a province of Canada and protected the right of t he Metis people.
Government vs. Metis Late December 1869 the Prime Minister Macdonald sent Donald Smith (senior officer of HBC) to speak to the people of the Red River. He was suppose to inform the Metis the government’s plans for the area and find out what the Metis’ concerns were and report back to Ottawa. The Metis created a list of rights and had three members of NCM travel to Ottawa to deliver them. vs
Metis List of Rights The Metis List of Rights: • The Right to Elect own L.A. and pass local laws • The Right to Reject federal laws. • Elect local officials • Land set aside for schools, roads, and public buildings • Become a province • Connected by Railway • Fund the province for 4 years. • Military in the region will be made from residents • Treaties be signed between government and Native people • French and English official language • Every male over 21 able to vote • Keep existing customs, rights and privileges after confederation • Amnesty granted for actions occurring during resistance.
Think/Pair/Share With your partner create two lists: Reasonable and Unreasonable. Go through each demand made by the Metis and place it under one of the headings above; Reasonable or Unreasonable. Underneath each demand – write a reason why the Metis asked for it.
Thomas Scott Thomas Scott was a surveyor and had been a member of the Canada Party, which was a group of English-speaking Protestants in the Red River that was working to make the North-West become part of Canada. They were encouraged to drive the Metis away from the Red River area and were not interested in the rights of the Metis people.
Thomas Scott When the Metis took over Fort Gary they placed some of the members of the Canada party into jail (including Thomas Scott). While in jail, Scott insulted and attacked guards. Also he threatened to escape and kill Riel. Scott was brought before a Metis military council and sentenced to death for insubordination. Many people reacted strongly against the execution of Thomas Scott. People in Ontario were angered and saw Riel as a murderer. However, people in Quebec supported Riel because he stood up for French rights.
Reaction to Thomas Scott’s Execution Riel argued that Scott was shot to make the Canadian government respect the Metis people. People in Ontario demanded that Prime Minister Macdonald send an army to the Red River Settlement to capture Riel and bring him to Canada for punishment. This placed the Prime Minister in a difficult situation. He didn’t want to lose the support of either Quebec or Ontario, but either decision would make him unpopular in one province.
Manitoba Act, 1870 After several months of debate and looking at the Metis List of Rights the Canadian government agreed that the areas surrounding the Red River area would become a separate province. On July 15, 1870, Manitoba became Canada’s 5th province, also known as the “postage stamp” province. The Metis were happy because a province had much greater control over its own affairs than a territory. Many of the points from the “List of Rights” become part of Manitoba’s Act. For example: French and English were both official languages and both catholic and protestant schools were funded by the government.
Riel Leaves Canada Because of the unrest in the area and to satisfy the people in Ontario, Prime Minister Macdonald decided to send troops to Manitoba. When they arrived Riel was no where to be found. Some of the troops attacked Riel’s two close friends. Riel had fled to the United States and did not return until 14 years later because he feared he would be charged with the death of Thomas Scott.
Manitoba Act – Reflecting After confederation, surveyors, government officials and settlers came to Manitoba searching for opportunities. The Canadian Government opened up more land for immigrants-which meant breaking the Manitoba Act and broke its agreement regarding their land rights. By 1883, much of the land that had been occupied by Métis in 1870 was now controlled by others. The Métis experienced increased poverty and discrimination and by 1900 perhaps as many as 75 percent of the original Red River Métis had left Manitoba. The dispossessed often moved further west and established communities such as Lac la Biche and Batoche, the site of the second Métis Resistance in 1885. Many of those who stayed integrated into French-Canadian and Anglo- Canadian communities.
British Columbia • The Pacific Coast was claimed following exploration during the late 1700s and 1800s. Think pair share: • What were the names of some of these early West Coast explorers?
Short History of BC • British Columbia was claimed by James Cook, Captain George Vancouver, Mackenzie, Thompson and Fraser during the late 1700s. During this time the HBC and NWC were fur trading in this region. • In 1849, Vancouver Island became a British colony. The mainland was referred to as New Caledonia and wasn’t a colony. • In 1858, a 2 gold rush brought 30 000 miners to New Caledonia. They included settlers, people looking for riches, as well as miners. Most of them were from United States. • Officials on Vancouver Island were worried with so many American setters coming to New Caledonia, it would be annex by USA.
British Columbia Gold Rush • Initially, explorers only came to B.C. to trade furs with the natives at the HBC trading posts. Things changed in the summer of 1856 when shiny stones (gold) were found in the Fraser River. Word spread and soon there was over 10,000 miners in the Lower Fraser valley. • Gold Rush – is when thousands of people come to one town or region all at the same time to find gold and become rich. British Columbia’s first development started with the Gold Rush.