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The Union in Peril

The Union in Peril

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The Union in Peril

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  1. The Union in Peril Slavery divides the nation. North and South enter a long and destructive civil war that ends slavery. African Americans briefly enjoy full civil rights, but new laws discriminate against them. NEXT

  2. The Divisive Politics of Slavery SECTION 1 SECTION 2 The Civil War Begins The North Takes Charge SECTION 3 Reconstruction and Its Effects SECTION 4 The Union in Peril NEXT

  3. Section 1 The Divisive Politics of Slavery Disagreements over slavery heighten regional tensions and leads to the breakup of the Union. NEXT

  4. SECTION 1 The Divisive Politics of Slavery Differences Between North and South Controversy over Slavery Worsens • Southern plantation economy relies on enslaved labor • Industrialized North does not depend on slavery • South tries to spread slavery in West • North’s opposition to slavery intensifies, tries to stop its spread NEXT

  5. SECTION 1 Slavery in the Territories Statehood for California • California applies for statehood as free state in 1849; angers South The Compromise of 1850 • Slave state Texas claims eastern half of New Mexico Territory • Southern states threaten secession—withdrawal from Union • Compromise of 1850 has provisions for both sides • California becomes free state; tougher fugitive slave law enacted • Popular sovereignty, or vote, decides slavery issue in NM, Utah NEXT

  6. SECTION 1 Protest, Resistance, and Violence Fugitive Slave Act • Slaves denied trial by jury; helpers fined and imprisoned • Northerners defy Act, help send slaves to safety in Canada The Underground Railroad • Abolitionists develop Underground Railroad—escape routes from South • Harriet Tubman is conductor on 19 trips to free African Americans Uncle Tom’s Cabin • Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe increases protests Continued . . . NEXT

  7. SECTION 1 continuedProtest, Resistance, and Violence Tension in Kansas and Nebraska • Kansas, Nebraska territories north of 3630’ line, closed to slavery • 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act allows popular sovereignty on slavery “Bleeding Kansas” • Proslavery settlers from Missouri cross border to vote in Kansas • Fraudulent victory leads to violent struggle over slavery in Kansas • Violence in the Senate • • Charles Sumner verbally attacks slavery, singles out Andrew Butler • Preston S. Brooks, Butler’s nephew, assaults Sumner on Senate floor NEXT

  8. SECTION 1 New Political Parties Emerge • Slavery Divides Whigs • Democrat Franklin Pierce elected president in 1852 • Northern, Southern Whigs split over slavery in territories • Nativist Know-Nothings also split by region over slavery • The Free-Soilers’ Voice • Free-Soilers fear slavery will drive down wages of white workers • The New Republican Party • Republican Party forms in 1854; oppose slavery in territories • Democrat James Buchanan elected president (1856); secession averted NEXT

  9. SECTION 1 Conflicts Lead to Secession • The Dred Scott Decision • • Dred Scott, a slave taken to free territory by owner, claims freedom • Supreme Court denies appeal; Scott has no legal rights, not a citizen • North angry; South reads ruling as guaranteed extension of slavery • Lincoln-Douglas Debates • 1858 Senate race between Senator Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln • Douglas wants popular sovereignty to decide if state is free or slave • Lincoln considers slavery immoral; wants constitutional amendment Continued . . . NEXT

  10. SECTION 1 continuedConflicts Lead to Secession • Harper’s Ferry • John Brown leads group to arsenal to start slave uprising (1859) • Troops put down rebellion; Brown is tried, executed • Lincoln Is Elected President • 1860, Lincoln beats 3 candidates, wins no southern electoral votes • Southern Secession • 7 states secede after Lincoln’s victory; form Confederacy in 1861 • Former senator Jefferson Davis elected president of Confederacy NEXT

  11. Section 2 The Civil War Begins Shortly after the nation’s Southern states secede from the Union, war begins between the North and South. NEXT

  12. SECTION 2 The Civil War Begins Union and Confederate Forces Clash • Southern States Take Sides • 1861, Fort Sumter in Charleston falls; Lincoln calls for volunteers • 4 more slave states join Confederacy • Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri remain in Union • Strengths and Strategies • Northern strengths: more people, factories, food production • Southern strengths: cotton, good generals, motivated soldiers • Union plan: blockade ports, split South in two, capture Richmond Continued . . . NEXT

  13. SECTION 2 continuedUnion and Confederate Forces Clash • Bull Run • • Bull Run—first battle, near Washington; Confederate victory • Thomas J. Jackson called Stonewall Jackson for firm stand in battle • Union Armies in the West • • Ulysses S. Grant pushes south; captures forts, wins at Shiloh • David G. Farragut takes New Orleans, the Confederacy’s busiest port Continued . . . NEXT

  14. SECTION 2 continuedUnion and Confederate Forces Clash • The War for the Capitals • • Robert E. Lee takes command of Confederate Army in 1862: • - drives General George McClellan from Richmond • - loses at Antietam, bloodiest one-day battle • McClellan removed from command, lets battered Confederates withdraw NEXT

  15. SECTION 2 The Politics of War Britain Remains Neutral • Britain does not need cotton, does need Northern goods Proclaiming Emancipation • Emancipation Proclamation empowers army to free Confederate slaves • Gives soldiers moral purpose; compromise no longer possible Both Sides Face Political Dissent • Lincoln, Davis suspend habeas corpus to suppress disloyalty, dissent NEXT

  16. SECTION 2 Life During Wartime War Leads to Social Upheaval • Casualties, desertions lead to conscription on both sides • Conscription—draft that forces men to enlist; leads to draft riots African Americans Fight for Freedom • African Americans are 1% of North’s population, 10% of army • Serve in separate regiments, paid less than whites for most of war Soldiers Suffer on Both Sides • Soldiers often sick from camp filth, limited diet, poor medical care • Prisons overcrowded, unsanitary; many die of malnutrition, disease Continued . . . NEXT

  17. SECTION 2 continuedLife During Wartime • Women Work to Improve Conditions • Thousands of women serve as nurses for both sides • Union nurse Clara Barton later founds American Red Cross • The War Affects Regional Economies • Confederacy faces food shortage, increased prices, inflation • Union army’s need for supplies supports Northern industry • North’s standard of living declines • Congress enacts income tax (percentage of income) to pay for war NEXT

  18. Section 3 The North Takes Charge After four years of bloody fighting, the Union wears down the Confederacy and wins the war. NEXT

  19. SECTION 3 The North Takes Charge The Tide Turns • Southern Victories • December 1862, Fredericksburg; May 1863, Chancellorsville • The Battle of Gettysburg • North wins decisive three-day battle of Gettysburg, July 1863 • Total casualties were more than 30%; South demoralized • The Gettysburg Address • Nov. 1863, Lincoln gives Gettysburg Addressat cemetery dedication • Speech helps country realize it is a unified nation Continued . . . NEXT

  20. SECTION 3 continuedThe Tide Turns • Grant Wins at Vicksburg • May-July 1863, Grant sieges Vicksburg after unsuccessful attacks NEXT

  21. SECTION 3 The Confederacy Wears Down • Confederates Seek Peace • Confederacy no longer able to attack; works toward armistice • Southern newspapers, legislators, public call for peace • Total War • Lincoln appoints Grant commander of all Union Armies (1864) • Grant appoints William Tecumseh ShermanasWestern commander • Grant, Sherman wage total war to destroy South’s will to fight • Grant’s strategy to decimate Lee’s army while Sherman raids Georgia Continued . . . NEXT

  22. SECTION 3 continuedThe Confederacy Wears Down • Sherman’s March • Spring 1864, Sherman creates a path of destruction through Georgia • The Election of 1864 • Lincoln’s unexpected reelection helped by Sherman’s victories • The Surrender at Appomatox • April 1865, Grant, Lee sign surrender at Appomatox Court House • Within a month, all remaining Confederate resistance collapses NEXT

  23. SECTION 3 The War Changes the Nation • Human Cost of the War • Approximately 360,000 Union and 260,000 Confederate soldiers die • Political and Economic Changes • Civil War increases power, authority of federal government • Southern economy shattered: industry, farmlands destroyed • A Revolution in Warfare • Developments in military technology make fighting more deadly • Ironclad ships change naval warfare NEXT

  24. SECTION 3 The War Changes Lives The Thirteenth Amendment • Thirteenth Amendment bans slavery in all states • Lincoln Is Assassinated • April 14, 1865, Lincoln is shot at Ford’s Theater • Assassin John Wilkes Booth escapes, trapped by Union cavalry, shot • 7 million people pay respects to Lincoln’s funeral train NEXT

  25. Section 4 Reconstruction and Its Effects After the Civil War, the nation embarks on a period known as Reconstruction, during which attempts are made to readmit the South to the Union. NEXT

  26. SECTION 4 Reconstruction and Its Effects The Politics of Reconstruction Building a New South • Freedmen’s Bureau provides social services, medical care, education • Reconstruction—U.S. rebuilds, readmits South into Union (1865–1877) Lincoln’s Plan • State readmitted if 10% of 1860 voters swear allegiance to Union • Radical Republicans consider plan too lenient: - want to destroy political power of former slaveholders - want full citizenship and suffrage for African Americans Continued . . . NEXT

  27. SECTION 4 continuedThe Politics of Reconstruction Johnson’s Plan for Reconstruction • Andrew Johnson, Lincoln’s successor, forms own plan • Excludes Confederate leaders, wealthy landowners • Congress rejects new Southern governments, congressmen Congressional Reconstruction • Congress passes Civil Rights Act, Freedmen’s Bureau Act (1866) • Fourteenth Amendment grants full citizenship to African Americans • Reconstruction Act of 1867 divides Confederacy into districts Continued . . . NEXT

  28. SECTION 4 continuedThe Politics of Reconstruction Johnson Impeached • House impeaches for blocking Reconstruction; Senate does not convict U. S. Grant Elected • Grant elected president in 1868; wins 9 of 10 African-American votes • Fifteenth Amendment protects voting rights of African Americans NEXT

  29. SECTION 4 Reconstructing Society Conditions in the Postwar South • By 1870, all former Confederate states have rejoined Union • Republican governments begin public works programs, social services Politics in the Postwar South • Scalawags—farmers who joined Republicans, want to improve position • Carpetbaggers—Northern Republicans, moved to the South after the war • Many Southern whites reject higher status, equal rights for blacks Continued . . . NEXT

  30. SECTION 4 continuedReconstructing Society Former Slaves Improve Their Lives • Freedmen found own churches; ministers become community leaders • Republican governments, church groups found schools, universities • Thousands move to reunite with family, find jobs African Americans in Reconstruction • Few black officeholders; Hiram Revels is first black senator Sharecropping and Tenant Farming • Sharecropping—tofarm land owned by another, keep only part of crops • Tenant farmers rent land from owner NEXT

  31. SECTION 4 The Collapse of Reconstruction The Collapse of Reconstruction • Ku Klux Klan—southern vigilante group, wants to: - destroy Republicans, aid planter class, repress African Americans - to achieve goals, KKK kills thousand of men, women, children • Enforcement Acts of 1870, 1871 uphold federal power in South • In 1872, Amnesty Act passes, Freedmen’s Bureau expires • Support for Reconstruction Fades • Republicans splinter; panic of 1873 distracts North’s attention • Supreme Court rules against Radical Republican changes Continued . . . NEXT

  32. SECTION 4 continuedThe Collapse of Reconstruction • Democrats “Redeem” the South • Democrats regain control as 1876 election deal ends Reconstruction NEXT

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