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The Union in Peril

The Union in Peril

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The Union in Peril

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  1. The Union in Peril

  2. Conflict Over Status of Territories • Wilmot Proviso (1846) fails to ban slavery from newly acquired Mexican territories • Free Soil Movement Party • Found support from northern Democrats and Whigs • Didn’t demand end to slavery, only spread of slavery

  3. Conflict Over Status of Territories • Southern position: oppose abolitionists, Free Soilers, favor extending 36°30’ westward • Popular Sovereignty • Lewis Cass, Michigan Democrat… let the people decide

  4. Conflict Over Status of Territories • Election of 1848 • Democrats nominate Cass • Whigs nominate Zachary Taylor • Free-Soil Party nominates Martin Van Buren • Taylor won because vote siphoned off by Free-Soil party in NY and PA

  5. Conflict Over Status of Territories • Election of 1848 • Taylor won because vote siphoned off by Free-Soil party in NY and PA

  6. The Compromise of 1850 • California joins as free state • Utah and New Mexico to join as territories, w/ popular sovereignty • Ban slave trade in DC, but allow slavery there • Adopt new fugitive slave law • All proposed initially by Henry Clay

  7. The Compromise of 1850 • Daniel Webster speaks on behalf in order to preserve the Union • John C. Calhoun speaks against, insists on Southern territorial rights

  8. The Compromise of 1850 • Millard Fillmore succeeds deceased Taylor, supports compromise • Stephen A. Douglas gathers support for individual portions of plan

  9. Agitation Over Slavery • Fugitive Slave Law • Track down runaway slaves • Lack of rights for the accused

  10. Agitation Over Slavery • Underground Railroad

  11. Agitation Over Slavery - Literature • Harriet Beecher Stowe’sUncle Tom’s Cabin

  12. Agitation Over Slavery - Literature • Hinton R. Helper’s nonfiction Impending Crisis of the South

  13. Agitation Over Slavery - Literature • Southern response • Slavery positive for masters and slaves • Sanctioned by the Bible, history • Attacks on northern “wage slaves” • Literature & laws polarized the sides

  14. National Parties in Crisis • Election of 1852 • Dem’s nominated “doughface” Franklin Pierce of New Hampshire • Whigs nominated Winfield Scott, ignored slavery • Whigs lose big time

  15. National Parties in Crisis

  16. Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) • Repeals Missouri Compromise • Some Northerners sees it as slave power conspiracy

  17. The Republican Party • Know-Nothings surge but fail • Republican party forms (1854) as coalition of Free-Soilers, antislavery Whigs, dissatisfied Democrats • Oppose extension of slavery

  18. Election of 1856

  19. Extremism & Violence • “Bleeding Kansas” – Border Ruffians v. Free-State Warriors

  20. Extremism & Violence • Caning of Senator Sumner

  21. Constitutional Issues • Lecompton Constitution – proslavery constitution of Kansas • Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)

  22. Lincoln-Douglas Debates • Stephen Douglas debates Abraham Lincoln • Slavery key issue

  23. John Brown’s Raid

  24. Election of 1860