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Components of Fitness

Components of Fitness

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Components of Fitness

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  1. Components of Fitness

  2. What are they? • Cardiovascular Endurance • Body Composition • Flexibility • Muscular Strength • Muscular Endurance

  3. In an effort to lose weight and excess fat, Americans in 1989 spent over 30 billion dollars on 54 million diet books and for services and products from 1500 weight control clinics. • Most just wanted to be thin, not lean • Difference?

  4. Thinness: weighing less than recommended values in age-height-weight tables • Leanness: refers to muscle, bone, and fat composition of your body weight • Lean individuals may weigh more than their ideal weight, but low body fat lessens risk of health problems

  5. Body Composition • Body is composed of water, protein, minerals, and fat • Total body fat consists of essential fat and storage fat

  6. Body Comp Essential Fat Storage Fat Fat that accumulates in adipose tissue • Fat in bone marrow, heart, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys, intestines, muscles, and throughout the CNS

  7. Body Comp Essential Fat Storage Fat Visceral Located around internal organs Subcutaneous Directly beneath the skin More dangerous? Provides protection and insulates • Necessary for normal body functions • Higher in women than men • Why?

  8. Body Fatnessary • Body requires essential fat • Serves as metabolic fuel for energy • Other normal body functions

  9. Assessing Body Composition • Direct assessment • Chemical dissolution: dissolves body into fat and fat-free components • Physical dissection: extensive dissection of cadavers • Only way to know exactly how much body fat an individual has without chance of error

  10. Assessing Body Composition • Indirect assessment: • BMI • Skinfolds • Girth Circumference • Hydrostatic Weighing • Bioelectrical Impedance (BIA) • Near-Infrared Interactance • Bod Pod • Most have a 3-4% error factor • Could be 4% less or 4% more

  11. BMI Formula • Weight in poundsX703 Height in inches2

  12. BMI Pros • Easy • Quick • No cost

  13. BMI Cons • Not totally accurate, only takes into account the height and weight of the subject, not the amount of lean and fat mass

  14. Hydrostatic Weighing • Valid, reliable, widely used • Labeled the “Gold Standard” • Based on Archimedes’ Principle

  15. Archimedes Principle • An object immersed in a fluid loses an amount of weight equivalent to the weight of the fluid which is displaced by the objects volume. • Applied to estimate body volume and body density of individuals • Since fat has lower density than muscle, fatter indiv. will have lower body density

  16. Procedures of HW • As you are submerged you must exhale the air in your lungs completely • There will be a little left, residual lung volume, can be calculated and will not affect the weighing • Once your body weight, underwater weight, and residual lung volume are known, your total body density can be calculated

  17. BIA • H2O constitutes 72% of fat-free body weight • BIA is based on the fact that body contains intra- and extracellular fluids capable of electrical conduction • Since fat-free weight contains most of your bodies water and electrolytes, it will conduct better than fat

  18. BIA • Essentially an index of totally body H2O, fat-free mass is estimated from • Electrodes attached to your hands and feet, right side • Don’t feel anything • Takes about 10 min • Expensive ($3500)

  19. BIA Guidelines • No eating or drinking within 4 hrs of test • No exercise within 12 hrs of test • Urinate within 30 min of test • No alcohol consumption within 48 hrs of test • No diuretics within 7 days of test

  20. Skinfold Calipers

  21. Skinfold Method • Practical, economical, easily administered • Measures skinfold thickness at specific body sites (subcutaneous fat) • Inexpensive • Assumes distribution of subcutaneous and visceral fat is the same for all individuals

  22. Accuracy • Depends on technicians skills • Should practice on 50-100 individuals before technique is mastered • Type of caliper being used

  23. Skinfold Testing Procedures • Take all measurements on right side of body • Identify and mark skinfold sites • Thumb and index finger 3” apart, perpendicular to skinfold • Grasp skinfold firmly with thumb and index finger about ½” above marked site

  24. Continued • Do not release skin fold during measurement • Release caliper jaw pressure slowly • Measurement should be taken 4 seconds after pressure released. • Minimum of 2 measurements per site • Rotational order

  25. Measurement Sites Women • Triceps: Vertical fold, posterior midline, halfway between shoulder and elbow, keep elbow extended and relaxed. • Thigh: vertical fold on front aspect of thigh, midway between knee cap and hip • Suprailium: diagonal fold above crest of ilium (hip-bone,) directly below the middle of the armpit

  26. Measurement Sites Women

  27. Measurement Sites Men • Chest: Diagonal fold halfway between anterior line of armpit and nipple • Abdomen: Vertical fold at a lateral distance aprox 2 cm from belly button • Thigh: Vertical fold on front aspect of thigh, midway between knee cap and hip

  28. Measurement Sites Men

  29. Bod Pod • Using air displacement technology for measuring and tracking body fat and lean mass • Must wear skin tight clothing (bathing suit) • Swim cap • Required to prevent errors from trapped air

  30. Bod Pod • Subject weighed before entering chamber • Empty chamber • 50 L cylinder • Subject • Lung volume

  31. Flexibility • Movement available at our joints • Usually controlled by length of muscles • Specific to each joint • Tightness of specific ligaments and/or tendons

  32. Benefits • Prevent injuries • Improve posture • Reduce low back pain • Maintain healthy joints • Improve balance during movement

  33. Safety Precautions • NEVER BOUNCE • Don’t stretch cold muscles • Perform stretch correctly • Stretch all major muscle groups • Flexibility very individual • Stretch point • Point of feeling stretch but not pain

  34. Types of Stretching • Ballistic stretching • Dynamic stretching • Active stretching • Passive stretching • Isometric stretching • PNF stretching

  35. Ballistic Stretching • Momentum of a moving body or a limb in an attempt to force it beyond its normal range of motion • Not considered useful and can lead to injury • Does not allow your muscles to adjust to, and relax in, the stretched position • Can cause muscles to tighten up by repeatedly activating the stretch reflex

  36. Dynamic Stretching • Involves moving parts of your body and gradually increasing reach, speed of movement, or both • No bounces or "jerky" movements • Improves dynamic flexibility and is quite useful as part of your warm-up for an active or aerobic workout • Dynamic stretching exercises should be performed in sets of 8-12 reps

  37. Active Stretching • Assume a position and then hold it there with no assistance other than using the strength of your agonist muscles • Increases active flexibility and strengthens the agonistic muscles

  38. Passive Stretching • Assume a position and hold it with some other part of your body, a partner, or some other apparatus • Very good for cooling down after a workout • Helps reduce post-workout muscle fatigue and soreness

  39. Isometric Stretching • Type of static stretching • Involves the resistance of muscle groups through isometric contractions (tensing) of the stretched muscles • Assume the position of a passive stretch for the desired muscle. • Next, tense the stretched muscle for 7-15 seconds (resisting against some force that will not move, like the floor or a partner). • Finally, relax the muscle for at least 20 seconds.

  40. PNF Stretching • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation • Not really a type of stretching but is a technique of combining passive stretching and isometric stretching • initially developed as a method of rehabilitating stroke victims

  41. PNF • Usually employs the use of a partner to provide resistance against the isometric contraction and to passively take the joint through its increased range of motion

  42. Muscular Strength • Maximum force that can be exerted by a muscle or muscle group • Usually done through resistance training • Uses the skeletal muscles

  43. Skeletal Muscles • Fundamental purpose is the generation of force, either to stabilize and balance the skeleton or to produce movement • Two fiber types • Slow twitch (Type 1) • Aerobic energy utilization • Relatively low force for relatively long periods • Red • Fast twitch (Type 2 a&b) • Anaerobic energy utilization • Relatively high force for relatively short periods • A: red B: white

  44. Muscular Strength • Muscular force is produced by a complex series of interactions between neurons, nucleotides, ions, and protein complexes within the muscle • Level of force generated can vary not only between muscles and muscle groups, but also within the range of motion of each particular muscle

  45. Muscular Strength • Factors affecting muscular strength: • Gender • Age • Limb Length • Tendon Insertion • Muscle Fiber Type

  46. Gender • Does not affect quality, just quantity • Males have more testosterone, therefore they have more muscle tissue • Pound for pound basis, similar strength performance • Age • Men and women of all ages can increase muscle, just greatest gain in developing years (10-20)

  47. Limb Length • Shorter limbs have better leverage • Easier for those with short limbs to lift more • Tendon Insertion • Depending on where tendon inserts, there can be better leverage created

  48. Muscle Fiber Type • Most men and women have a fairly even mix of slow-twitch and fast-twitch fibers • Some people inherit a higher percentage of one muscle fiber to another • Although both fiber types respond positively to progressive resistance training, the fast-twitch fibers experience greater increases in size and strength • People with more fast-twitch fibers may obtain better results

  49. Motor Unit • A single motor nerve and ALL of the muscle fibers it attaches to • Typical ST 100 fibers • Typical FT 500 fibers • All or none principle • All fibers will simultaneously contract when activated