What is Health? Health does not mean the absence of sickness. Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Physical Activity helps : • Your physicalwell-being • Your mentalwell-being. • Your socialwell-being.
What is Fitness? Fitness is the ability to meet the demands of the environment. FITNESS is a blend of a number of different physical qualities. Physical Fitness is only one area of TOTAL fitness. Other areas include mental, social and emotional fitness. Physical fitness is made up of 11 different parts or components: 5 are Health-related and 6 are Skill related.
Health and Fitness Health and Fitness are closely linked. You can’t be HEALTHY WITHOUT BEING FIT enough to meet the demands of your environment. However, it is possible to be FIT but NOT HEALTHY. Remember, HEALTH is complete PHYSICAL, SOCIAL and MENTAL well-being.
From the list below decide which you would consider to be health-related components of fitness and which you would consider to be skill-related components.
The 5 Components of Health-Related Fitness The components of health-related fitness are a basis from which to measure our general wellbeing. • Cardiovascular endurance • Muscular Endurance • Muscular Strength • Flexibility • Body Composition
Cardiovascular Endurance Cardiovascular enduranceis the ability to exercise the whole body for prolonged periods of time. • The heart and lungs work together to provide the needed oxygen and fuel to the body during sustained workloads. • To improve cardiovascular endurance, choose an activity in which your body has to work continuously for a long period of time (i.e. jogging or swimming) • Your heart rate determines the intensity of your “cardiovascular endurance” workout (should be in the range of 50-60% of MHR).
Muscular Endurance & Strength Muscular endurance is the ability to exert force continuously over an extended period. • Endurance postpones the onset of fatigue so that activity can be performed for lengthy periods. Muscular Strength is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to apply force and overcome resistance. • It is an important fitness component because it facilitates the learning of motor skills.
Muscular Strength Three different types of strength: • Static or Isometric: when FORCE is applied to a NON-MOVING object. • Dynamic or Isotonic: which involves the MOVEMENT of the muscles/joints etc. against a MOVING object. • Explosive: which involves all the athlete’s strength going into a QUICK MOVEMENT.
Flexibility Flexibilityis the range of movement through which a joint or sequence of joints can move. • Through stretching activities, the length of muscles, tendons, and ligaments is increased. Such activities should extend beyond the normal range of movement to be effective. • The ligaments and tendons retain their elasticity through constant use. • People who are flexible are less subject to injury in sport, usually possess sound posture, and have less lower back pain. Inactive individuals lose flexibility, whereas frequent movement helps retain the range of movement.
Flexibility Three different types of stretching: • Static stretching: EXTENDING a limb beyond its normal range. Position is held for at least 10 seconds. • Active/Dynamic stretching: extending a joint beyond its normal limit, and repeats this RHYTHMICALLY over a period of 20 seconds. • Passive stretching: joint flexibility is improved by EXTERNAL FORCE caused by partners or coaches who move the limb to its end position and keep it there for a few seconds.
Flexibility Guidelines for safe stretching: • Do not bounce when stretching • Be careful not to hold your breath when stretching. Inhale and exhale. • Maintain “soft” joints when stretching (do not “lock” your joints or hyperextend joints when stretching). • Always hold the stretch for 10-30 seconds. • The stretch should never hurt. • Avoid pulling on your joints. • Stretch only when muscles are warmed up
Body Composition Body composition is the proportion of body fat to lean body mass. • Factors that affect your body composition: family history, diet, metabolism, age, physical activity, and gender. What are the methods to measuring body composition?
Body Composition • Skinfold Calipers test • Least accurate • The tester pinches the skin at the appropriate site to raise a double layer of skin and the underlying adipose tissue, but not the muscle. The calipers are then applied 1 cm below and at right angles to the pinch, and a reading in millimeters (mm) taken two seconds later. The mean of two measurements should be taken. If the two measurements differ greatly, a third should then be done, then the median value taken.
Body Composition • Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) • Somewhat accurate • Amethod of measuring body fat percent by sending a low-level, safe, electrical current through the body. The current travels at a different rate through the various body tissues, which then allows a calculation of fat mass and fat-free mass. This feature is common in many of today's at-home digital scales.
Body Composition • Whole Body Plethysmography (Bod Pod) • Accurate • Subject steps inside an egg shaped "pod". The pod measures the volume of air you displace, allowing the Bod Pod to measure your overall density. We know the density of fat, muscle, bone and water. The percentage of body fat can be calculated from overall body density.
Body Composition • Underwater/Hydrostatic Weighing • Very Accurate • Subject sits on a scale inside a giant tank of water. After exhaling all of the air from your lungs, you pull yourself underwater completely and sit very still for 10 seconds while the scale stabilizes. Volume is calculated by measuring how much water your body displaces underwater. The percentage of body fat can be calculated from overall body density.
Body Composition • DEXA Scan • Best-Most Accurate • Subject lies on a table. A small dose of radiation passes through the body allowing X-rays to distinguish fat from muscle from bone.
The 6 Components of Skill Related Fitness Skill related fitness is the ability to perform successfully in various games and sports. • Agility • Balance • Coordination • Power • Reaction Time • Speed
Agility, Coordination & Reaction Time Agility is the ability to change direction quickly and accurately. Coordination is the ability to use the body and senses together to produce smooth efficient movements. Reaction Time is how quickly your brain can respond to a stimulus and initiate a response.
Balance Balance is the ability to maintain equilibrium while stationary, or moving. Two different types of balance: • Static balance: the equilibrium is maintained in a FIXED POSITION, usually while standing on one foot. • Dynamic balance: the equilibrium must be maintained while performing a task which involves MOVEMENT (i.e. walking the beam).
Power & Speed Power is the product of strength and speed. When we perform a task as quickly and as forcefully as we can, the result is powerful. Speed is the quickness with which one can move the body from one point to another. • Most sports and activities require some form of speed.