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Fitness Components

Fitness Components

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Fitness Components

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  1. Fitness Components

  2. The 5 Components of Fitness • 1. Cardiovascular or Aerobic Capacity • 2. Flexibility • 3. Muscular Strength • 4. Muscular Endurance • 5. Body Composition

  3. 1. Cardiovascular • The body’s ability to continuously provide oxygen to muscles as work is performed over an extended period of time. • Ex: Running

  4. Purpose Of The Cardiorespiratory Endurance Exercise Program • To develop the body’s ability to deliver oxygen to the working muscles of the body and other tissues. • CRE is the best indicator of overall health • The most important component of physical fitness and health-related fitness

  5. Acceptable levels of aerobic capacity (cardio) are associated with a reduced risk of the following: • high blood pressure • Coronary heart disease • Obesity • Diabetes • Some forms of cancer

  6. Training Heart Rate Range [(220-age)-resting pulse] x ____% + resting pulse = target zone

  7. FIT Principle • F= Frequency (How often) • 3-5 days a week • I= Intensity (How hard) • 60%-90% • T=Time (How long) • 1 hour

  8. Components of the CR Exercise Prescription • Modality • What form of activity will you choose • Frequency • “How often” • Intensity • “How hard” • Duration • “How long” • Progression

  9. Modality[Type] • Choose an activity that: • Involves a large proportion of muscle mass • Maximizes the use of large muscles • Minimizes the use of small muscles • Involves whole-body, is repetitive, 20-60 minutes duration

  10. Modality: Examples • Walking/jogging • Stair climbing • Cycling • Swimming (skill specific) • Selected game activities (i.e., basketball, soccer)

  11. Frequency • 3 - 5 days/week (normal) • Frequency is based on current fitness levels, age health status, and exercise objectives. • Low Fitness Level or Cardiovascular Patients • Several brief activities per day • High Fitness • 3-5 times/week • More than 5 days/week allows for little gain in VO2max. Gains???

  12. Intensity [How Hard] • How hard a person exercises is possibly the most important component of cardiorespiratory exercise prescription. • How hard a person exercises is directly related to the level of cardiorespiratory improvement.

  13. Intensity #2 • Typically, 50 - 85% of one’s capability • Must tailor intensity to the individual • Low fit individuals may benefit from low intensities. • Highly conditioned individuals will require higher levels of intensity to illicit physiological change.

  14. Procedures for Establishing Intensity • Percentage of Maximum Heart Rate • Percentage of Heart Rate Reserve • Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) • Percent of VO2 Maximum

  15. Percentage of Maximum Heart Rate • Maximum heart rate is: • 220-age for males • 226-age for females • For a 20 year old male maximum heart rate would be 220-20=200 • 50% of (MHR) : .50 x 200 = 100

  16. Percentage of Heart Rate Reserve • Steps using this method: • Determine maximum heart rate • Determine resting heart rate • Determine heart rate reserve(HRR) • HRR = MHR – RHR • Determine appropriate training intensity. • 50% of HRR ; .5 x HRR Example …

  17. Example • 20 year old male. • MHR = 220 – 20 200 • RHR = Heart rate at total rest 60 • HRR = 200 – 60 140 • Training intensity of 50%= [.50 x 140]+RHR

  18. Duration • 20 - 60 minutes • Specific guidelines vary depending on individual fitness levels and objectives. • Duration is inversely related to intensity ???

  19. Determination of Heart Rate • Electronically • Palpation

  20. Electronic Heart Rate Determination • Requires specialized equipment (i.e., heart monitors) • Advantages include accuracy and continuous display.

  21. Pulse Palpation • Palpation sites • Carotid artery (neck) • Radial artery (wrist) • Apply light pressure to avoid vagal effect when using carotid artery. • Resting heart rate – 30 seconds x 2 • Exercising heart rate – 15 seconds x 4 ?

  22. Aerobic Capacity Tests • 1. The Pacer Test • 2. One Mile Run • 3. The Walk Test

  23. PACER: Standards for Healthy Fitness Zone

  24. One Mile Run: Standards for Healthy Zone

  25. 2. Flexibility • The ability to move joints through a full range of motion • Ex: Stretching

  26. What is Flexibility? • Definition: The range of motion (ROM) of a single joint (i.e., knee) or a series of joints (i.e., spine)

  27. Two Subdivisions of flexibility • Active Flexibility • Passive Flexibility

  28. Active Flexibility • Also known as dynamic flexibility • Definition: The degree to which the force of a muscle contraction can move a joint.

  29. Passive Flexibility • Also known as static flexibility • The range of motion of a joint resulting from some external force. • Passive flexibility is typically greater than active flexibility.

  30. Benefits of Flexibility • Assists in establishing and maintaining mobility • Reduce muscle soreness • Reduce risk of low back pain • Improves posture

  31. Benefits of Flexibility #2 • Improves muscle coordination • Reduces risk of injury • May allow for improved performance • Relieves stress and tension

  32. Factors that influence flexibility • Genetics • Joint Structure • Sedentary living • Soft Body Tissue • Age • Gender • Muscle Temperature

  33. Joint Structure • Movement varies depending on joint structure. • Limited ROM: example, sutures of the scull • Extensive ROM: example, shoulder

  34. Sedentary Living • Inactivity leads to low flexibility levels

  35. Soft Body Tissue • Muscle tissue • Excessive bulk (rarely) • Connective tissue • Skin, fat • Scar tissue • Fat tissue (adipose) acts as a wedge

  36. Age • Aging is negatively related to flexibility • Increased sedentary lifestyle • Physical changes in tissues • Chemical structure of the tissues • Loss of fluid in the tissues • Increased calcium deposits

  37. Gender • Females, in general, are more flexible than males • Gender differences appear to be joint specific

  38. Muscle Temperature • As muscle temperature rises, connective tissue becomes softer, allowing for more elongation. • Soft tissue temperature changes can increase or decrease flexibility by as much as 20% • Optimal temperature for muscle elongation: 102 -110 F • Warm - up before stretching seems warranted

  39. Procedures of Flexibility Training or Stretching • Static Stretching (Slow Sustained Stretching) • Dynamic or Ballistic Stretching • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)

  40. Static Stretching (slow sustained stretching) • Most common and recommended procedure • Associated with limited muscle soreness • May assist in reducing muscle soreness • Stretch the muscle to the point of slight discomfort (overload) • Hold each stretch for 10 to 30 seconds • Repeat the stretch 2 to 3 times • Flexibility exercise sessions should occur 3 to 5 times per week

  41. Dynamic or Ballistic Stretching • Most dangerous of the stretching procedures. • Involves the use of repetitive, bouncing. • Virtually abandoned • May lead to soreness and muscle injury.

  42. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) • Involves: • Isometric contraction • Contraction and relaxation phases • Normally performed with a partner • Hold the isometric contraction 4 to 5 seconds • Repeat 2- 3 times; 3-5 times per week

  43. Flexibility Tests • Sit and Reach • Shoulder Stretch

  44. Sit and Reach: Standards for Healthy Fitness Zone

  45. Shoulder stretch: Standards for healthy zone • Passing = touching fingertips together behind the back

  46. 3. Muscular Strength • The ability of a muscle group to apply a maximal force against a resistance one time • Bench Press • 150lbs 1 time

  47. 4. Muscular Endurance • The ability to repeat muscle movement over a period of time. • Arm curls • 3 x 15 reps

  48. Three Types of Muscle Tissue • Smooth • Hollow organs of the body • Stomach, blood vessels • Cardiac • Found only in the heart • Skeletal • Allows for movement

  49. Hypertrophy • An increase in muscle mass Atrophy • Loss of muscle mass

  50. Benefits of Resistive Training • Improved appearance • Increased strength and endurance • Hypertrophy (ncrease in lean muscle mass) • Increased flexibility (ROM)