Workshop Outcomes • Discuss the essential elements of RTI • Understand the roles of all tiers within a system of supports • Understand Behavioral RTI and the behavior-academic connection • Examine RTI across the country • Identify key elements of decision protocols and documentation
Agenda A General Educator’s View • What is RTI? • A Tiered Pyramid of Interventions • Behavioral RTI • Key Elements to Operationalizing RTI • Decision Protocols, Decision Making, and Documentation
That’s Me! • I work at school sites. • I have to have coffee as soon as I wake up. • I work in the central office. • I played sports in high school. • I am a school teacher with a special education credential. • I have been in education less than five years. • I plan to shop when this is over. • I am a psychologist by training. • I traveled more than 100 (200, 300, etc.) miles to get here. • I am a speech and language pathologist by training. • I have a pet I like more than some of my relatives. • I am a school teacher with a general education credential. • I read for pleasure at least three times a week.
Our mission as educators is not to • Meet mandates. • Raise test scores.
Our Mission • To assure high levels of learning for all students!
Research • Approximately two-thirds of eighth- and twelfth- grade students read at less than the “proficient” level as described by NAEP (National Institute for Literacy, 2006). • Approximately 32 percent of high school graduates are not ready for college-level English composition courses (ACT, 2005). • Over half of adults scoring at the lowest literacy levels are drop-outs and almost a quarter are high school graduates (NCES, 2005). • Approximately 40 percent of high school graduates lack the literacy skills employers seek (Achieve, Inc., 2005). • U.S. drop-outs’ literacy skills are lower than most industrialized nations, performing comparably only to Chile, Poland, Portugal and Slovenia (OECD, 2000). • A full 70 percent of U.S. middle and high school students require differentiated instruction—that is, instruction targeted to their individual strengths and weaknesses (Alliance for Excellent Education for the Carnegie Corporation of New York).
If our mission is high levels of learning for all students, the question is: • Is it possible?
Schools do make a difference. Effective schools research by Ron Edmonds, Lawrence Lezotte, Wilbur Brookover, Michael Rutter, and others concludes: • All children can learn! • Schools control the factors assuring that students master the core of the curriculum.
“An analysis of research conducted over a 35-year period demonstrates that schools that are highly effective produce results that almost entirely overcome the effects of student backgrounds.” —Robert Marzano, What Works in Schools (2003) Schools do make a difference.
90─90─90 Schools (Douglas Reeves) Schools do make a difference.
For all students to learn, we must • Start with highly effective, research-based, differentiated core instruction. • Systematically identify students who are not succeeding in our core program. • Provide these students additional time and support until they learn.
Fundamental Assumption • To achieve our mission, it is not a “regular ed” issue, nor a “special ed” issue. • It’s an “ed” issue!
Why adopt an RTI model? Answering this question requires us to look back into history. 1975, PL 94–142 Identifying students with handicapping conditions denied access to public education “Child Find” Procedural safeguards as a major component of identification process
What was not a focus? Little or no attention was paid to student outcomes, either academic or behavioral. Students with disabilities were systematically excluded from assessment systems. No systems were developed for assessing these students. Why adopt an RTI model?
Successful academic outcomes are not achieved by waiting for students to fail but are instead achieved by systematically applying these questions to our work. Why adopt an RTI model?
Impact on “regular education” Educators came to understand that when students failed to learn, it was expected (even required) that they refer students for special education testing. “Failure to succeed in a general education program meant the student must, therefore, have a disability.” —David P. Prasse, Loyola University Why adopt an RTI model?
Why adopt an RTI model? Impact on “regular education” • Special education experienced ballooning enrollments. • General education experienced a narrowing of expectations for student performance. • We learned to look elsewhere for assistance.
Why adopt an RTI model? After 25 years of refer, test, place, something needed to be done. • Reform needed to be systematic (understood by both regular and special education teachers). • RTI emerged as a regular education initiative.
We simply know more... • 1 in 6 children may suffer from • Mental Retardation • Learning Disorders • Attention Disorders • Autism Spectrum Disorders • Genetic Disorders • Sensory Processing Disorders • Epilepsy Processing Disorders Neurological • fMRI • Pre and post brain scanning • EEG • Brain Electrical Activity Mapping • Statistical Probability Mapping • Sally Shaywitz, Overcoming Dyslexia, • Aditi Shankardass, A second opinion on learning disorders, TED, 2009
Tier 3: Intensive Interventions Tier 2: Supplemental Interventions Tier 1: Core Program
Tier 1: Where all students need to go Tier 2: What some students need to get there Tier 3: What this student needs to get there
Certain Access Effective practices Systematic response
“At first glance, response to intervention (RTI) is a method to identify learning disabilities. But RTI could play a much larger role. It has the ability to transform how we educate students—all students. With RTI, students may get the support they need as soon as they show signs that they are having difficulty learning, regardless of whether or not they have a disability.” —Council for Exceptional Children (2007) Why adopt an RTI model?
Rather than a focus upon identification and placement, we needed a focus upon student outcomes. Meanwhile, among the essential questions of the PLC are: How will we know if the students learned? How will we respond if they don’t learn? Why adopt an RTI model?
RTI Intended to provide an educational experience to all students that is: Focused upon delivering a powerful core instructional program and interventions Frequently monitoring the progress of students receiving interventions Adjusting and changing the interventions as appropriate Why adopt an RTI model?
Students who need special education are those who Respond to interventions yet require major resources to sustain the progress. OR Show progress but will not be able to close the gap with their peers, no matter the intensity or frequency of the intervention. Why adopt an RTI model?
Why? Because “Adopting an RTI model is about adopting best practice, insisting that we do what is best and necessary for all students in our schools, and, finally, rising to the challenge of doing that which is socially just. That is why we must adopt an RTI model and implement it with integrity in every school throughout the nation.” —David P. Prasse, Loyola University Why adopt an RTI model?
Why adopt an RTI model? • Because • ─ A child shall not be determined to be a child with a disability if the determinant factor is • Lack of appropriate instruction in reading (as defined by NCLB) • Lack of appropriate instruction in math • Limited English proficiency • —34 CFR 300─306(b)
Background Madeline Hunter – Instructional Theory Into Practice (ITIP) • Objectives • Standards • Anticipatory set • Teaching • Input • modeling • check for understanding • Guided practice/monitoring • Closure • Independent practice Mastery Teaching and Enhancing Teaching, Madeline Hunter
Background Direct, explicit instruction “The goal of direct instruction is to maximize student time on task and the student rate of success which in turn are associated with student achievement. Thus, the behaviors incorporated into direct instruction are designed to create a structured, academically oriented learning environment in which students are actively engaged during instruction and are experiencing a high rate of success (80 percent mastery or better) in the tasks they are given” (Joyce, Weil, & Calhoun, p. 344). • Orientation • Presentation • Structured Practice • Guided Practice • Independent practice Methods of Teaching, Bruce Joyce and Marsha Weil with Emily Calhoun
Gradual Release of Responsibility Why do it? Students Teacher Better Learning through Structured Teaching, Douglas Fisher and Nancy Frey
Keys to Effective Tier 1 Instruction • Before the lesson • Cognitive Planning • During the lesson • Metacognitive Modeling
What Are The Characteristics Of Effective Tier 1 Instruction? • Write and Pass • Create a Circle Map – describe a classroom that exhibits effective instruction • After I direct you, pass to the right (if at end end, down) and add to the map • Create a one-liner
What Are The Characteristics Of Effective Tier 1 Instruction? • Incorporating all phases of lesson design correctly • High levels of student engagement • High levels of student participation • Frequent checks for understanding with quality questions • Constant corrective feedback • Students interacting with students
My preferencePhases of Tier 1 Instruction • Orientation • Presentation • Structured Practice • Guided Practice • Independent Practice • Closure/Reflection/Connections
5 Phases of Tier 1 Instruction • Check for understanding • Use interactive structures • Actively engage students • Provide immediate corrective feedback • Efficiently use instructional time • Establish clear routines and procedures • Plan objectives / activities that are standards and data-based • Select tasks appropriate either instructionally or independently • Provide consistent instruction and content through lesson
Key Teacher Behaviors • Sets the context for lessons • Deconstructs standards for content and level of cognition • Refers to progress toward meeting the objective throughout the lesson • Assesses for and connects to prior learning • Builds background knowledge • Pre-teaches academic and content vocabulary • Employs scaffolds to support students • Provides a variety of media • Links all activities, homework, and assessments standards • Provide immediate, corrective feedback • Constantly observes, explains, questions, clarifies, praises, acknowledges prompts, and corrects
Key Teacher Behaviors • Metacognitively models • Provides multiple explanations • Provides hands-on, tangible, concrete, and conceptual experiences • Determines appropriate grouping (pairs, groups) and tasks based on Purpose, Process, and Product • Specifically supports English learners with visuals and sentence frames • Intervenes with students when needed • Extends for students ready to move on • Assesses at the end of the lesson to determine who has mastered content and who needs further assistance • Ensures students can transfer knowledge • Designs homework to reinforce lesson
Key Student Behaviors • Attends to teacher • Listens to explanations • Actively processes new information • Asks questions to clarify • Responds when prompted • Collaborates with peers • Takes charge and responsibility for learning • Practices new skills to self-assess knowledge • Problem solves when confused • Self-regulates • Self-corrects • Initiates learning dialogue with peers • Reflects on learning • Extends and applies learning to new and/or future concepts and contexts • Explores real-life applications
Activity – 2 Minutes • Brainstorm all the academic and behavioral interventions with which you have been involved