Spanish Conquest • Conquistadors – conquerors • Hernán Cortés • Arrived in 1519 – approx 600 soldiers • Aztecs • Montezuma – 250,000 + just in the capital • Advanced cities / warring nation
How were the Spanish able to conquer that many Aztecs in such a short period of time with so few Spaniards?
Quetzalcoatl • light skin, red hair, and light eyes • Would come to earth during the end times • Would come by way of the sea
Spanish superiority • Weapons made of iron • Metal armor • Cannons • Ships • Horses • Disease • Captives from the Caribbean and neighboring tribes
Spanish Conquest Complete • Conquered Aztecs in 1521 • Destroys Tenochtitlan • Current site of Mexico City • Encomienda System was created • Haciendas – Farms owned by conquistadors and worked by Indians.
Early Social Organization • Peninsulares • From Spain and moved to the Americas • Criollos • Spanish ancestry born in Americas • Mestizos • Mixed blood • Indians
Social Classes • Most people are Mestizos. • They are poor and cannot own land. • Very few are Peninsulares • Very wealthy and have all power and land. Are these groups equal? What do you think is going to happen?
Road to Democracy • 1821 - Rebellion led by a Criollo priest Miguel Hidalgo leads to Mexican independence. • Wealthy peninsulares still own all land and hold all power. • Mexican Revolution 1910 – 1920 • Became a democratic republic
Major Industries • Oil • Drug Trade • Manufacturing • Tourism
Oil industry • PetroleosMexicanos (PEMEX) • A State owned company for decades • Accounts for 1/3 of government revenue • Focused on getting the easy to locate reserves.
Mexico Oil Reform • Current President Pena Nieto pushing for reform • He wants to open the industry to private investors. • Foreign investors would bring the kinds of technology needed to tap the billions of unattainable oil in the country.
Impacts of privatizing • This would lead to competition and cheaper oil!!! • Opens the door for U.S investors • Could limit cash flow to the Mexican government.
Drug Trafficking • 10 Billion dollar industry • Divisions among rival drug cartels leads to violence in areas that overlap. • 47,515 had died in drug war violence between Dec. 1, 2006, and Sept. 11 • Use of terrorism to maintain control • Beheadings, car bombs, kidnappings • Government Corruption • Those who oppose are threatened or assassinated
Drug Trafficking – Why Mexico? • Weak local and State governments • Increased international success combating drug smuggling in Colombia and the Caribbean • Increased drug consumption in Mexico • Ease of buying guns in the U.S and transporting them to Mexico.
NAFTA • North American Free Trade Agreement • (NAFTA) 1993/1994 • This lifted tariffs and trade blocks between the U.S, Canada, and Mexico.
Maquiladoras • Assemble products almost exclusively for U.S. • Spurred economic growth along U.S. border • Employ 1,000,000+ • Changed appearance of northern cities
Quiz L2 – 12pts • What were the four classes in Mexico’s early colonial period? • What is a Maquiladora? • What is NAFTA? How has it impacted the economy of Mexico and the U.S? • How were the Spanish able to conquer the Aztecs so easily?
Regions of Mexico • Heartland Region • Gulf Coastal Plain • Yucatán Peninsula • Northern Pacific Coast • Southern Pacific Coast
Northern Pacific Coast Gulf Coastal Plain Heartland Region Yucatán Peninsula Southern Pacific Coast
Northern Pacific Coast • Baja California • Peninsula • Tijuana • Illegal Immigration • Maquilladoras
Southern Pacific Coast • Sierra Madre del Sur • Tourism • Acapulco • Puerto Vallarta
Gulf Coastal Plain • Fossil fuels • Natural gas • Oil • On Gulf Coastal Plain • Under Gulf of Mexico • Hurricane Zone
Yucatán Peninsula • Limestone bedrock • Porous • Creates caverns • sinkholes • Mayans • Their civilization spread here • Tourism • Cancún
Heartland Region • Plateau • An area of high, flat land • Densely populated area • Mexico City
U.S vs. Mexico Population Mexico - 109,955,400 U.S - 303,824,640 Life Expectancy Mexico - 75 years U.S - 78 years GDP (per capita) Mexico $12,800 U. S $45,800 Growth rate Mexico - 1.14% U.S - .88% City Population Mexico City - 8,658,576 New York - 8,143,197