MEXICO By: Hope Wiseman, Morgan Payne, Kristina Anerson, Jenny Ryan, Jackie Hoffman
Historical Backround • Occupied by Indians, such as the Mayans and Incans, until 1519 • Conquered by Spain in 1519 • Declared independence from Spain on September 16, 1810
Geography • Is 61,606 sq mi, making it the worlds 14th largest country by total area • Borders the United States, Belize, and Guatemala • Has 31 states and the Federal District
Economic and Social Conditions • From 2000 to 2004, the population in poverty has decreased from 24.2% to 17.6% in the general population and from 42% to 27.9% in rural areas • Since the late 1990s, the majority of the population has been part of the growing middle class • In 2006, trade with the United States and Canada accounted for almost 50% of its exports and 45% of its imports • Mexico is the largest north American auto-producing nation • 2010 census: 112,336,538 people living in Mexico
Ethnic, Caste, and Religious Groups • 82.7% of Mexicans are Roman Catholic • The Native language is Spanish
How Presidents Are Chosen • President is elected by direct election • six-year term of office • there is no runoff election. • No reelection allowed
How Legislatures Are Chosen • Senators and Chamber of Deputies every three years • Senators: Direct Election by the People • Three are chosen from each of the 31 states and federal/capital district • 32 elected by proportional representation • 6-year terms • Deputies: Direct Election by the People • 500 members: 300 by simple majority, 200 proportional representation • 3-year terms
How Judges Are Chosen • Appointed by the president • Approved by the Senate
Role of Political Parties and Interest Groups Political Map
Parties of Mexico • National Action Party– • Party of incumbent President Felipe Calderón. It is the largest party in the Senate. • Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) – • the dominating party in the Chamber of Deputies and at the municipal and state level, second in the Senate. • A part of the Socialist International, it is now considered as a centrist party, • supports a policy of mixed economy and nationalized industries, both of which are longstanding Mexican practices. • Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) – • Born as "National Democratic Front“ • Labor Party (PT) – • a laborist political party formed in 1990. • Allied with PRD
Parties of Mexico Cont. • Ecologist Green Party of Mexico (PVEM) – • a minor party with an environmental platform. • allied with PAN to elect the first non-PRI president in 7 decades • Now allies with PRI • Convergence – • a social democratic party, formed in 1997. • New Alliance– • originally created by academics of the Autonomous Technical Institute of Mexico and members of the National Educational Workers Union, • the largest union in Latin America
Interest Groups • Interest groups became an institutionalized part of state structure rather than an independent source of advocacy • Increases state power
How Individual Citizens Participate In Politics • Individuals can vote for president and congress • Individuals can run for political office
Way Political Institutions Exercise Power National Palace: Seat of Federal Executive • Executive: • President set broad outlines of policy for the administration and has numerous resources to ensure that those policy preferences are adopted • Mexican presidents have a set of formal powers that allows them to • initiate legislating • lead in foreign policy • create government agencies • make policy by decree or through administrative regulations and procedures • appoint a wide range of public officials • President’s skill in negotiating, managing the opposition, using the media to acquire public support, and maneuvering within the bureaucracy can be important for insuring that his program is fully endorsed • Authority to fill numerous other high-level positions, which allows him to provide policy direction and keep tabs on what is occurring throughout the government • President's power to make appointments provides him with the capacity to build a team of like-minded officials in government and ensure their loyalty to him • New presidents can introduce extensive change in positions within the government • Bring in “their people” which provides the president with a group of high- and middle-level officials who share a general orientation toward public policy and are motivated to carry out his goals
Supreme Court building Mexican Congress • Legislative: • The Legislative power of the United Mexican States is allocated in a General Congress divided in two Chambers: one of deputies and the other one of senators who exercise the faculties granted by the Constitution. • As in the United States, both chambers are responsible for the discussion and approval of legislation and the ratification of high-level presidential appointments • Senate can amend the texts that are submitted to it • Each legislative chamber has a number of committees that study and recommend bills • Active policy-maker, blocking and forcing the negotiation of legislation, and introducing its own bills • Judiciary • The Mexican legal system is based on Spanish civil law with some influence of the common law tradition, Spanish civil law is based upon strict adherence to legal codes and minimal jurisprudence • The most powerful juridical instrument is the writ of amparo , which can be invoked against acts by any government official, including the president • writ of amparo , a category of legal protection comparable to a broad form of habeas corpus that safeguards individual civil liberties and property rights. • Courts slowed the actions of government by issuing amparos; however, in almost every case in which the power of government or the president was at stake, the courts ruled on the side of the government
Inter-relationships between political institutions Chief Justice-Juan Silva Meza President- Felipe Calderon • As in the United States, in cases of impeachment, the Chamber of Deputies has the power to prosecute, and the Senate acts as the jury • Also a restraint on Executive • President appoints all Supreme Court judges and confirmed by the Senate or the Permanent Committee • Also a restraint on Executive • Power of introducing bills is shared with the executive, although in practice the executive initiates about 90 percent of all legislation • In the event that two-thirds of the Senate cannot agree on an appointee, the president may fill the vacancy without Senate approval • If the presidential office falls vacant during the first two years of a sexenio (six year presidential term) , the congress designates an interim president, then calls a special presidential election to complete the term • vacancy occurs during the latter four years of a sexenio , the congress designates a provisional president for the remainder of the term Senate
Restraints on Political Institutions • Executive • Steps down at the end of their six-year term (no re-election) • The president has sole authority to appoint and dismiss cabinet secretaries, except for the attorney general, who must receive the consent of the Senate. • Also an inter-relationship between Executive and Judiciary • Legislative • In keeping with the Mexican tradition of "no reelection," deputies and senators are not eligible to immediately succeed themselves • Judiciary • Supreme court justices are appointed for life but are subject to impeachment by the Chamber of Deputies • Also an Inter-relationship between Judiciary and Legislative • Court rulings of both the whole, or plenary, court and the separate chambers are decided on the basis of majority opinion. Rulings by the separate chambers may be overturned by the full court • Mexican Supreme Court of Justice is prohibited by the constitution from applying its rulings beyond any individual case • Chief justices may not serve consecutive terms but may be reelected by their colleagues during their 15-year tenure on the court
Functions of Legislature • The powers of the Congress include the right to pass laws, impose taxes, declare war, approve the national budget, approve or reject treaties and conventions made with foreign countries, and ratify diplomatic appointments. • Bicameral congress: Senate and Chamber of Deputies • The Senate • 128 representatives • Serve for 6 years • Cannot be reelected for the next immediate term • addresses all matters concerning foreign policy, approves international agreements, and confirms presidential appointments. • The Chamber of Deputies • 500 representatives • Serve for 3 years • Cannot be reelected for the next immediate term • addresses all matters pertaining to the government's budget and public expenditures.
Functions of Executive • President • Serves for 6 years • Cannot be reelected • No vice president • President also appoints, with Senate approval, the Cabinet members and other officers. The President is responsible of executing and enforcing the law, and has the authority of vetoing bills.
Functions of Judiciary • The Supreme Court of Justice interprets laws and judge cases of federal competency • Supreme court: 11 judges or ministers that are appointed for 15 years and cannot be appointed more than once • Other institutions of the judiciary are the Electoral Tribunal, collegiate, unitary and district tribunals, and the Council of the Federal Judiciary
Other Political Institutions • Other institutions of the judiciary are the Electoral Tribunal, collegiate, unitary and district tribunals, and the Council of the Federal Judiciary
Establishment of Internal Order • Mexican military is primarily organized to meet challenges to internal order and the existing political system. • the military has been reluctant to become involved in law enforcement. The armed forces have given the responsibility of preventing violence to federal and state police authorities except when faced with a large-scale breakdown of civil order. • Troops are not fully equipped or trained to deal directly with protesters, and, with its reputation at risk, the military leadership seems inclined to register its influence more as a presence than an active force.
External Security • Mexican armed forces: composed of the Mexican Army which includes the Mexican Air Force (FAM) as a subordinate entity and the Mexican Navy which also includes the Mexican Naval Infantry and Naval Aviation (FAN). Its three objectives are the repulsion of external aggressions, protection of internal security, and to aid the civilian population in case of natural disaster. It is made up entirely of career soldiers, and although National Military Service does exist conscripts are not integrated into any army or navy unit. • Help other countries with disaster relief as well. Indonesia after tsunami and U.S after Hurricane Katrina
Raising Money to Pay for Services • Mexico exports a plethora of good. Some of which include manufactured goods, oil and oil products, silver, fruits, vegetables, coffee, and cotton. • About 80.5% of Mexico’s exports are to the United States. • Mexico’s exporting rates and economy has increased due to the North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
Raising Money to Pay for Services • In addition Mexico is the largest producer of avocados, onions and chayote, limes and lemons, and sunflower seeds. • In 2000 Mexico accumulated 90% of all export earnings. This is because of the automotive industrial manufactures in Mexico.
Services Government Provides • According to the 2006 World Bank, Mexico has been trying to greatly increase the literacy rates. This was a slight success. • Provides Health Care (but only for people who can afford it) • Provides a military for citizens
Is Government Legitimate • On September 16, 2006, Mexico held a National Democratic Convention (CND) to elect “a legitimate government”. • Mexico claims to be a “legitimate government” because it has a body that claims to be running the republic. However, Mexico has a federal government. • Mexico is a country that appears to be one type of government, but then claims to be another type of government.
Citizen Behavior Regulating • Mexico requires its citizens to get a firearm registration card for anyone wishing to aquire a firearm. Disobeyers face serious jail time. • The government has been trying to put down the violent fighting from the drug cartels for regional control. • The government is more focused on putting down the violence, than drug trafficking prevention, which then is left to United States functionaries.
Sources • Horner, C. (2010, August 03). Horner's corner. Retrieved from http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.chrishorner.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/health-reform-powell-editorial_cartoon33.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.chrishorner.net/tag/health • Wikipedia. (2011, November 4). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_government_of_Mexico • Components of the economy. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Mexico • Wikipedia. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Health_care_in_Mexico • United States. (2011, Nov 16). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved from http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35749.htm • wikipedia.org. (2012, Feb 29). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexican_Drug_War • http://en.wikipedia.org. (2011, November 23). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gun_control • Wikipedia. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_political_parties_in_Mexico • free world maps. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.freeworldmaps.net/northamerica/mexico/political.html • Kesselman, M., Krieger, J., & Joseph, W. A. (2009). Introduction to comparative politics, political challenges and changing agendas. Wadsworth Pub Co. • Alonso, G. (2004). The parliamentary system of the mexican senate . Retrieved from http://www.asgp.info/Resources/Data/Documents/NOMJAVQTPUHRHJSUWNABMPOCBPJTUO.pdf • Wikimedia Foundation, I. (2012, 00000 00). Wikipedia mexico. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Mexico • Global security. (2011, September 07). Retrieved from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/mexico/government.htm • Nations encyclopedia. (1996, June). Retrieved from http://www.country-data.com/frd/cs/mxtoc.html • (n.d.). Retrieved from website: http://www.senado.gob.mx/index.php?ver=sen&mn=1&sm=5