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Chapter 7 Lecture  Theories About How People Construct Meaning

Chapter 7 Lecture  Theories About How People Construct Meaning

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Chapter 7 Lecture  Theories About How People Construct Meaning

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  1. Chapter 7 Lecture  Theories About How People Construct Meaning Chapter 7

  2. Rules Theory • Rules theory and constructivism extend the premises of symbolic interactionism by providing more detailed accounts of how individuals construct meanings. • Rules Theory is the Coordinated Management of Meaning Chapter 7

  3. Rules theory is concerned with how humans construct meaning for their communication. • Coordinated management of meaning (COMM.):  We use communication rules to coordinate meanings in interaction with others. Chapter 7

  4. CMM is an interpretive theory that assumes human communication is rule guided and rule following. Chapter 7

  5. Hierarchy of Meanings • Pearce and Cronen believe that we rely on a hierarchy of meanings to interpret experiences.  • The hierarchy consists of multiple levels of meaning, and each level is contextualized by higher levels in the hierarchy. Chapter 7

  6. Content (Lowest level.) • Speech Act (Communication is action.) • Episode (A recurring routine of interaction that is structured by rules and that has boundaries.) • Relationships (The somewhat scripted ways we interact with particular others.) • Autobiographies (An individual's view of himself or herself that both shapes and is shaped by communication.) • Cultural Patterns (An understanding of speech acts, episodes, relationships, and autobiographies that is shared by particular social groups or societies.) Chapter 7

  7. Discuss an interpersonal communication story and apply the questions. • 1.  What did you regard as the content? • 2.  How did you define the speech act? • 3.  What did you consider the episode? • 4.  How did you perceive the relationship? • 5.  How do you describe your autobiography? • 6.  What cultural patterns can you identify that influenced this specific communication? Chapter 7

  8. Rules • Rules allow us to make sense of social interaction and guide our own communication so that we coordinate meanings with others. Chapter 7

  9. Write a list of interpersonal rules. Chapter 7

  10. WRITE TWO RULES FOR EACH ROLE: • ROLES:  (a) Professors, (b) high school teachers, (c) college students. • 1.  Constitutive rules define what counts as what for example, what counts as support, meanness, joking, praise). • 2.  Regulative rules guide interaction. In CMM theory, a rule that tells us when it's appropriate to do a certain thing and what we should do next in an interaction. Chapter 7

  11. Constructivism (Kelly) • Constructivism (Kelly) focuses on cognitive processes that we use to create meaning. Chapter 7

  12. Let’s construct • Think of an idea. • What do you already know. • Input. • How do you put it into your life? Chapter 7

  13. Cognitive schema--knowledge structure. • Prototypes are the broadest cognitive structures, ideal, or optimal examples of categories of people, situations, objects. Chapter 7

  14. Personal constructs--the second-broadest knowledge structures are building blocks.  Examples would be intelligent-unintelligent, uninteresting-interesting. Chapter 7

  15. Stereotypes are predictive generalizations about how a person will behave. Chapter 7

  16. Scripts • Scripts are guides to action, much like the episodes that we read about in CMM. • This of a situation where you operate from a script. Chapter 7

  17. What do you think? • What prototypes do you apply in interpreting the activity and other people? Chapter 7

  18. What do you think? • What personal constructs are salient in your thinking about the other people? Chapter 7

  19. What do you think? • What stereotypes do you make about how specific others will act?  What is the basis of your predictive generalizations? Chapter 7

  20. What do you think? • What script do you follow in this activity?  • Has your script ever not worked?  • What happened? Chapter 7

  21. Cognitive Complexity • Personal constructs are the centerpiece of constructivist theory building. • Constructivists believe that people vary in the complexity, or sophistication, of their interpretive processes. Chapter 7

  22. Differentiation is measured by the number of distinct interpretations an individual uses to perceive and describe others. • Abstraction is the extent to which a person interprets others in terms of internal motives, personality traits, and character. Chapter 7

  23. Organization is the degree to which a person notices and is able to make sense of contradictory behaviors. • Person-centered --cognitively complex people are more capable of engaging in sensitive communication that is tailored to particular others. • The research inspired by constructivist theory is impressive and growing Chapter 7