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Chapter 10 Questions/Answers

Chapter 10 Questions/Answers

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Chapter 10 Questions/Answers

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  1. Chapter 10 Questions/Answers

  2. Democratic Ferment • 1) Poll taxes instead of property requirements, written ballots, more elected officials, less appointed • 2) Women & Blacks still couldn’t vote; only “elite” citizens running

  3. The Election of 1824 • 1) 1 party (Republican) 5 candidates • J.Q. Adams, Calhoun, Crawford, Clay, Jackson (regional support) • Jackson won popular vote but didn’t get majority of electoral=election decided in the House of Representatives • Clay persuaded House to select J.Q. Adams • Adams Won; Clay becomes Secretary of State

  4. J.Q. Adams as President • 1) Federal Aid for internal improvements; Recognized Latin American countries as independent (Haiti) infuriated south • 2) Didn’t gain any more support through his presidency

  5. The Rise of Andrew Jackson • 1) Moved back to 2 party system (Democratic Party) • 2) MVB-Born Lower-Middle class, rose up through politics, Believed U.S. needed 2 party system

  6. The Election of 1828 • 1) AJ=Drunken, Gambler, Adulterer, Murderer • JQA=Wimpy, Rich/Priveledged, not trustworthy • 2) Democratic Party=S and SW • Republican Party=NE • Middle America=Swing States (primarily favored AJ in 1828)

  7. Jackson in Office • 1) Policy of hiring friends and supporters after elected, “To the victor go the spoils”, AJ replaced 10% of government upon election • 2) Didn’t want too much federal aid for internal projects, felt it corrupted politicians (played into special interest groups) • 3) Indian Removal Act=South Supported • Tariff Act=South Against

  8. Nullification • 1) Nationalist, War Hawk, States Rights Advocate, Wants to be President some day, AJ’s V.P. (first term) • 2) Not much industry to benefit, raised prices (only helps north) • 3) Nullification • 4) Laws (tariff) only favored one area of nation, thought slavery could be outlawed someday • 5) Distribute Federal Revenue (from tariff) to states, Start to lower tariffs

  9. Nullification Continued • 6) Calhoun and his wife “snubbed” secretary of war and his wife, 1818 Calhoun urged Monroe to punish AJ for raid in Florida • 7) Tariff of 1833=lower tariff, Force Bill=Authorized President to use force to collect duties if necessary • 8) Helped pass “Compromise Act” Saved country

  10. The Bank Veto and Election of 1832 • 1) Aristocracy, few “moniedcapatilist” gained from bank (not democratic)

  11. The War on the Bank • 1) Led to unsafe/unbacked loans from “Pet Banks” • 2) NY Democrats that were hard money advocates

  12. The Rise of Whig Opposition • 1) Lost southern support led to southerners and Republicans joining to form “Whig” party • 2) North=old republicans, social reformers, South=Against Tariff

  13. The Election of 1836 • 1) Democratic Party=MVB Whig Party=Harrison, Webster, Mangum (divided party) • 2) Loss of southern support, would hurt the party in the future

  14. The Panic of 1837 • 1) Too many bad loans (overspeculation) Specie Circular=only specie accepted for payment for public land sales • 2) Drop in wages, unemployment, foreclosures

  15. The Search for Solutions • 1) Independent Treasury; Clean Up Banking • 2) Hard Money Party; Distrusted Banks

  16. The Election of 1840 • 1) Harrison reached out to west (Log Cabin); Gained a new sectional allegiance • 2) Economy, No Military Glory, Weak Campaign (didn’t get out to campaign)

  17. The Second Party System Matures • 1) 1828-1.2 million voters; 1836-1.5 million voters; 1840-2.4 million voters • More eligible voters, issues affected the common voter

  18. The Second Great Awakening • 1) Didn’t need a “settled” congregation, preached in open fields, not as “upidy”, fit western lifestyle • 2) Promoted Law and Order, Morality

  19. Eastern Revivals • 1) Combined Protestant Denominations; more inclusive • 2) Converted more than men, big presence in the church

  20. Critics of Revivals: The Unitarians • 1) Called Revivals “Uncouth Emotional Exhibitions”, true revivals were gradual/ not immediate

  21. The Rise of Mormonism • 1) Made America the center of Christianity, additional revelations beyond the bible

  22. The Shakers • 1) Convulsive Religious Dance; Mother Ann Lee • 2) Abstain from sex, God contained both male and female elements

  23. The War on Liquor • 1) Total Abstinence from Alcohol consumption, expel church members who condoned alcohol consumption • 2) No more drinking on the job (factory system), support of factory owners, more serious about work after Panic of 1837 • 3) Mass. Prohibited sale, Maine banned it, consumption dropped

  24. Public School Reform • 1) 1 room (ages 3-20) very primitive • 2) Educational Reformer, State funded schools, 10 month school term, standardized text books, attendance standards • 3) Farmers-needed children to stay home and work, Catholics-Anti-Catholic message in text books

  25. Abolition • 1) Gradual Emancipation, Compensate Slave Owners, Ship free blacks back to Africa • 2) Disliked it, Blacks were American born, no connection to Africa • 3) Radical cries for Emancipation, voice for abolitionist movement • 4) Different views, legal equality but not social equality, political side, role of women in the movement • 5) 1836-1845 “tabled” anti-slavery petitions in congress

  26. Women’s Rights • 1) Grimke sisters, Lucretia Mott, Lucy Stone, Abby Kelley, Elizabeth Cady Stanton • 2) Draft a demand for women’s rights, 12 resolutions • 3) Other reform movements were more popular, slow gains prohibited big gains

  27. Penitentiaries and Asylums • 1) Upbringing over human nature caused deviancy • 2) Prison aimed to institute discipline (Reform Offenders) • 3) Solitary Confinement • 4) Insane Asylums instead of sending to prison

  28. Utopian Communities • 1) Attracted Weirdo’s, no aggreeance on anything • 2) Became birthplace of Transcendentalist ideals (Philosophy, art, literature) • 3) Communism, gender roles different, polygamy, sexual pairings for procreation

  29. Themes • 1) Democratizing the electoral process and the changing scope of political parties, the party system • 2) Economic downturn, panic of 1837, the impact of the election of 1840 • 3) 2nd Great Awakening and religious revivalism • 4) Reform Movements of the mid 1800’s (abolitionist, temperance, women’s rights)