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I. War of Austrian Succession 1740-1748 (Prussia v/s Austria)

I. War of Austrian Succession 1740-1748 (Prussia v/s Austria) A.Frederick II or Frederick the Great (Prussia)inherits the throne. Early, his father doubled the size of the army and militarized Prussia society.

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I. War of Austrian Succession 1740-1748 (Prussia v/s Austria)

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  1. I. War of Austrian Succession 1740-1748 (Prussia v/s Austria) A.Frederick II orFrederick the Great (Prussia)inherits the throne.Early, his father doubled the size of the army and militarized Prussia society. 1.He seized the Austrian province of Silesia(a farmland area that was rich in minerals). 2.Allies-France and Spain

  2. B.Maria Theresa(Austria)inherits the throne. 1.Allies- Great Britain and Russia C.The war lasted 8 years.All parties were exhausted and agreed to stop fighting. Prussia kept Silesia.

  3. II.Seven Years War 1756-1763-( First Global War) A.Originated with the struggle between Prussia and Austria.It included all of Europe’s major powers. 1. G.B. supports Prussia. 2.Austria forms an alliance with France. B.Three major areas of conflict-Europe, India, and North America.In North America it was called the French- Indian war.

  4. 1.Ended by the Treaty of Paris.

  5. 2.Britain got control of Canada and all of Louisiana east of the Mississippi River.

  6. 3.Prussia still retained Silesia.

  7. III. British Taxation Policy Seven Year War had left Great Britain deeply in debt.Britain felt justified in requiring the colonists to help pay for their defenses.One way the British tried to gain more control over the colonies was through taxation. *The colonists saw these new taxes as an unjust restrictions of their liberties .

  8. A.Stamp Act-required colonists to pay a tax in the form of a special stamp on many paper goods(wills, newspapers, playing cards, and mortgages). B.Tea Act-it’s purpose was to save the East India Co. from bankruptcy by re- moving all duties on tea shipped to the colonies.Made the price of British tea much more lower than colonial tea.

  9. 1.Samuel Adams principal organizer of the Boston Tea Party.He led a group of men dressed as Indians onto the ship and dumped 343 chests of tea into the ocean.


  11. Boston Tea Party

  12. B. Response to the Tea Act 1. British closed the the port of Boston. 2. British forced the colonists to house and feed British troops. 3. Public meetings were forbidden. 4. 1775- Boston Massacre- British troops began to feel threatened the colonists.They(British) tried to seize colonial guns and gunpowder.

  13. IV. American Revolution In 1774 the Patriots(1/3 of the colonists) met in Philadelphia(First Continental Congress) demanding to be granted full rights of British citizens. A. Ju1y 4,1776-Second Continental Congress 1.Adopt the Declaration of Independence. 2.Thomas Jefferson principal author.In the first draft Jefferson denounced slavery.Later it was removed.

  14. Declaration of Independence

  15. Facts About the Revolutionary War 1.The British had a superior military force. Their fleet was the strongest in the world. 2.War against the colonists was not popular in Great Britain. 3.Britain had no allies.King George had to hire German soldiers called Hessians.

  16. 4.At first the American forces were poorly trained volunteers.Their lack of unity helped the British. 5.Most of the fighting took place between 1776-1781. 6.France agreed to an alliance with the colonists to weaken the British Empire. 7. 1781-Americans and the French trapped and defeated the British at Yorktown, Virginia.Peace negotiations lasted 2 years.

  17. 8.Ben Franklin was the U.S. chief negotiator. 9. 1783 Treaty of Paris was signed.


  19. V.Old Regime(outdated social system) A.First Estate-clergy 1.Paid no direct taxes to the state. 2.Owned 10% of the land. B.Second Estate- (rich nobles) 1. They owned 20% of the land in France and paid almost no taxes. C.Third Estate-98% of population

  20. 1.Bourgeoisie(middle class)it included bankers, lawyers, doctors, merchants, and professors.They paid high taxes. 2.City workers-poorest members 3. Peasants - a.largest group(80%) b. They paid almost 1/2 of their income to nobles, tithes to the church, and taxes to the King.

  21. a.The Third Estate resented the privi- leges enjoyed by the First and Second Estates. b. Peasants were burdened by taxes on everything from land to salt to soap. c.Nobles only had the right to hunt game. Peasants were even forbidden to kill rabbits that ate their crops.

  22. VI. Financial Crisis A.deficit spending-government spends more than it takes in. Louis XVI borrowed heavily to help the fight wars. 1.War of Austrian Succession 2.Seven Years War 3.American Revolution 4.To solve the problem the govern- ment would have to increase taxes, reduce expenses, or both. King Louis’s XVI advisor Jacques Necker proposed

  23. taxing the First and Second Estates. The nobles and the clergy forced the king to dismiss the would-be-reformer. C. Eventually the wealthy and powerful classes demanded the king to call theEstate General(an assembly of repre- sentatives from all 3 Estates. D. Bad food harvest(added to the problem)-sent food prices soaring.


  25. Marie Antoinette

  26. VII. Estate General meets at Versailles King Louis XVI asked all 3 Estates to prepare notebooks listing all their grievances. *Third Estate insists on reform. *Some call for fairer taxes and freedom of the press. * Peasants demanded the right to kill animals. A.Estate General was deadlocked the issue of voting. Each state met

  27. separately and voted as a group.It allowed the First and the Second Estates to outvote the Third Estate.The 2 privileged Estates could always outvote the Third Estate. B.The Third Estate asks other mem- bers to help them shape a new con- stitution.They transform themselves into the National Assembly.A few days later they (Third Assembly) finds themselves locked out at it’s meeting place.

  28. C. The National Assembly takes the Tennis Court Oath- they vowed not to disband until they had drawn up a new constitution.King Louis XVI accepted it after some members of the clergy and nobles joined with the National Assembly.


  30. VIII. Storming of the Bastille (medieval fortress in Paris)- Royal troops began to gather around Versailles. Rumors held that the king would dissolve the Assembly. A. The Parisians wanted the weapons to assist the National Assembly who were in Versailles.They demanded weapons and gunpowder believed to be stored there.The commander at Bastille refused to open the gate and fires on the crowd.

  31. Storming of the Bastille

  32. IX. Women march to Versailles they were driven by hungar(much of the anger was directed at the Queen-Marie Antoinette.The press wrote that she had answered the cries of the hungry people by saying “Let them eat cake.”) A.They demand that the king and his family return to Paris. 1.Louis remained there for 3 years.

  33. Declaration of the Rights of Man-statement of revolutionary ideals.It reflected the ideals of the Enlightenment.

  34. X.Constitution of 1791 A.Set up a limited monarchy.It stripped the king of much of his powers. 1.Divided the monarchy into 3 branches. a. Executive King could no longer make laws. b. Legislative Assembly-it had the powers to make laws, collect taxes,and decide on issues of war and peace.

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