FIRE GROUND STRATEGY AND TACTICS THE BASICS
DEFINITIONS II • STRATEGY = Incident Commander. Decides the Goal (RECEO/REVAS) • TACTIC = Operations/Division Officer. Chooses objectives to reach goal (interior attack, roof ventilation, etc). • TASK = Group/Firefighters. Perform the functions to reach objective
(Fire Attack) Strategy: The Goal, what has to be done Tactic: the objective,how will it be done Task: the assigned activity, who will do it Strategy = The Incident Commander Tactic: The Operations/Division Officer Task:: The Firefighters, perform the functions Basic Fire Ground Strategy and Tactics
Think:: Size Up, Pre-Fire Plan, and Goal Plan: Strategy and Tactics Act: Implementation Incident Commander to Operations to Firefighter/ Groups Command SequenceThink! Plan! Act!
Rescue Exposures Confinement Extinguishment Overhaul Ventilation Salvage (FEMA) Rescue Evacuation Ventilation Attack Salvage (Fire Attack) Primary Factors to Determine Strategy
Questions To Ask • What do I Have? • What am I doing • What do I need? • Where is it going? • How do I control it? • Who is in command?
Strategic Concepts In Firefighting (McAniff) • OFFENSIVE: Direct attack at seat of fire. Normally at Incipient Stage, this solves all problems. • OFFENSIVE/DEFENSIVE: An attack on the main body of fire, while taking measures to control extension. • DEFENSIVE/OFFENSIVE: A holding action,it keeps fire in reasonable bounds while more forces are called. • DEFENSIVE: Surround and Drown, protect the exposures. • INDIRECT: A Contained/Confined smoldering fire, where use of steam expansion is taken advantage of and there is no rescue.
General Principles of Firefighting (Norman) • Lacking sufficient manpower,rescue takes precedence. • Remove those in greatest danger first! • With insufficient manpower to perform needed tasks, perform those that protect the most first. • When sufficient manpower is available coordinate both rescue and fire attack. • If there are no threats to occupants or no occupants, Firefighters should no be unduly endangered.
Engine Company Operations Aggressive attacks are a necessity. Begin suppression as soon as possible. Choose the proper operating mode OFFENSIVE DEFENSIVE INDIRECT
Basic Fire Ground Strategy and Tactics • When a human life is at stake an interior attack is mandated. • 1st hose line to worst case before worrying about other hose lines. • If attack stalled increase ventilation or water flow, or both. If not working CHANGE TACTICS! • When effectiveoffensive attack is not possible or has not succeeded in 20 minutes, prepare defensive positions • When forced to defensive mode consider the possible effect of total structure involvement.
LOCATE CONFINE EXTINGUISH “LET CIRCUMSTANCES DICTATE PROCEDURES…ERR ON THE SIDE OF SAFETY.”
Sources: IMS by NFPA Fire Attack by Emergency Resources Inc. Fire Officer’s Handbook of Tactics by John Norman Strategic Concepts in Fire Fighting by Edward P. McAniff
DISCUSSION • Residential Garage • Car Fires • Strip Mall/Deluge gun • Mid-Rise/Outside balcony • Nursing Home
The Plaza: 8220-8224-8228 Jog Rd. Boynton Beach Q.A.S. Strategy and Tactics Exercise
Assisted Care Living Facility • 3 Story Building: Type 5P – Concrete and wood – 1 hour. Ext. block walls, poured conc. Floors. • 1st fl. 53,000 #ft (core style hallways) • 2nd & 3rd flrs. @37,8000 #ft (center style hallways • Roof: Tile, wood truss/joist • Standpipes/Sprinklers • 145 apartments