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Policy Defined Radio and Professional Certification -------- A Study of PowerPoint Presentation
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Policy Defined Radio and Professional Certification -------- A Study of

Policy Defined Radio and Professional Certification -------- A Study of

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Policy Defined Radio and Professional Certification -------- A Study of

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  1. Policy Defined Radioand Professional Certification-------- A Study of Developments in Wireless Technologyand theInternational Association of Radio and Telecommunications Engineers(iNARTE) Prepared for B.E.A.R.S. Seminar at Baylor University November 14 2008

  2. Technology Obstacles for Wireless • Better use of Spectrum • Spectrum Efficiency (b/s/Hz) • New spectrum management paradigm • International agreements including global circulation of terminals • Data load • Range • Security • Interoperability • Quality of service (real-time) • Reliability (asynchronous) • Power consumption • Homologation • Technology migration • Cost

  3. Technologies and Initiatives • Policy Defined Radio • Cognitive Radio • Adaptive Radio • Reconfigurable radio • Smart radio • Software Defined Radio • Fixed Function Devices • Ultra Wideband

  4. Focus Issues • Spectrum management • “Command and Control” will not take us into the future • Legal and economic debate, should spectrum be treated as a property right? Is it better treated as a public commons, perhaps with use leasing? • Simulations show 80-100 X improved use • Network management • Improved quality of service • Adaptive assignment of resources • Use of ontologies (John get’s gold service)

  5. The Spectrum Problem • RF spectrum is a limited resource. • Demand for wireless applications is exploding. • Using the current “command and control” methods of spectrum management we are running out of spectrum. • Some frequencies have special properties making the highly desirable for some applications.

  6. All Spectrum Is Assigned, But…

  7. … Most Spectrum Is Unused

  8. Spectrum Occupancy Study Goals • Test Descriptions • Spectrum Occupancy Measurements • Methods to Extract Transmitter Parameters NYC report available: http://www.sharedspectrum.com/?section=measurements

  9. Measurement Location and Antennas Discone antenna 30-1000 MHz LPA antenna 1000-3000 MHz Faraday cage used to reduce undesired collection equipment RF noise Location had excellent line-of-sight to NYC

  10. High Utilization (Public Safety Band) High Bandwidth, Spread Spectrum Signal 17% Duty Cycle Upper Bound (Frequency Resolution 65 MHz/501=130 kHz/bin) 50% Duty Cycle is too High, 19% Utilization Measured Using Small Frequency Bins (450-455 MHz)

  11. Low Utilization Band Less Than 1% Apparent Duty Cycle

  12. Mid-Level Utilization – TX Aux Band Mobile Video Links Upper Bound (Frequency Resolution 120 MHz/501=240 kHz/bin)

  13. Developing the Technology and System Concepts to Dynamically Access Available Spectrum Goal: Harvest and reuse spectrum in real time

  14. Dynamic spectrum access has been made possible by the convergence of new developments in:computer science, software engineering and radio engineers.

  15. The Network Management Problem • Increasing expectations for quality of service. • Optimizing network performance. • In real-time. • Allow organizations to set their own priorities. • Selection among radio access technologies. • Context sensitive regulations.

  16. Policy-Based Controls • Policy Framework • Implementations Must Fit With National And International Regulations • Algorithms Must be Adaptable • Regional and operational situations • Evolving policies • Policy-Based “Metalanguage” • Translates Policy Rules Into Radio Behavior Controls • Decouples Technology From Regulatory Process • Control Operation Based on Policies and Situations • Use Semantic Web Technologies (DAML/OIL/OWL)

  17. High Level Architecture System Policy Policy Reasoner System Strategy Reasoner Radio Platform Sense Transmit Accredited Policy Device Configuration

  18. Concept of Operation RF Resource Request Develop Request Process Request Determine Opportunities Select Opportunities RF Transmit Plan Bound: Yes/No Unbound: Binding Constraints

  19. Principle of Policy Defined Radio • Suitable for Range of Architectural Implementations • Centralized and decentralized • Identify “Interference-Preventing” Core Set • Extensible to other features (subleasing, microcharging,...) • Separate Policies From Engineering • Avoid advocacy for specific spectrum sharing policies • Provide For Richness/Complexity of Policies • Regulations neither flat nor hierarchical • Allow For Diversity of Policy Sources • Peer-Peer and hierarchical policy authorities • Enable extension to “cognitive” optimizing logic

  20. Interference Prevention National National Gov’t Non-Gov’t DoD Services Agencies Commercial & Civil Owners QOS, Cost Optimization Unit Unit User User User User User Levels of Policy Regulation Policy Authority Regional Policy Focus Ontology-Based Policy Controls Enable Combining and Processing Rules From Multiple Authorities

  21. Core Theories of Innovation • Sustaining vs disruptive innovation • Value formula theory • Low end & new market disruption • Resources, processes and values theory • Value chain theory • Integration vs modularity

  22. Low End Disruption

  23. Sustaining or Disruptive? • Most innovations can be nurtured to be sustaining or disruptive. • Incumbents welcome sustaining innovations that solve their current problems or the problems of their current customers. • Incumbents resist or oppose innovations that are disruptive.

  24. Policy Defined Radio and iNARTE

  25. iNARTE was established in 1982 as a result of Government deregulation. A Non-Profit Certifying body. Programs in: Telecommunications Wireless EMC ESD Product Safety An FCC Commercial License Examiner iNARTE offers validated methodology for the identification and verification of Engineers and Technicians who are able to evidence competency, experience, appropriate education and training for a specified expertise. iNARTE has certified more than 16000 members in 26 countries What is iNARTE?

  26. Certification Criteria

  27. What is the value proposition? Who are the customers? • iNARTE offers a credible, 3rd party opinion of competence in a specialized field. • Different people are looking for different things: • Documentation of training & knowledge. • Knowledge & experience. • Work readiness – knowledge, experience, judgment and character.

  28. Is a certification program viable? • A mature program will certify ~25% of the potential candidates. • It takes ~1000 certifications or a specialty with ~4000 full time practitioners to support a viable program. • How do you take a census of participants in an emerging field? • Established fields have known data sources • The participants are not yet in a new field

  29. What is the body of knowledge? • A competent practitioner has command of the body of knowledge and experience in applying it. • In an emerging field the body of knowledge is rapidly changing! • What does experience mean when what you did yesterday may actually train you to do the wrong things tomorrow?

  30. What organization holds the center of the body of knowledge? • Typically alliances are built with key organizations in a discipline and with the opinion leaders in the discipline. • The leaders in the field make sure that the test is current and adequately surveys the required knowledge. • What organization do you build an alliance with?

  31. Conclusions • Innovations: • Move the boundaries • Take organizations back to their core formulas • Challenge established business cases • Require new processes • The same organization can seldom mature an innovation as both sustaining and disruptive. • Sustaining innovations are best matured by focus and discipline. • Disruptive innovations are best matured by exploration, diversity and flexibility.

  32. Conclusions • Wireless is changing in fundamental ways. • Innovations will be matured by some to be sustaining and by others to be disruptive of current business models. • Convergence is creating new technical specialties.