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  1. Valuing scarcity of coastal wetland – a conceptual model (unfinished) Dr ZOU Xinqing

  2. Background • National level: 120 million ha cultivated land – red line • Rapid urbanization process in recent 2 decades • Jiangsu province: 0.18 million ha land resources are needed before 2020.

  3. Reclamtion plan before 2020

  4. Yancheng coastal wetland

  5. Land use changes in YNNR KE, C.-Q., 2011, Regional Environmental Change, 11, 161-173

  6. Land use changes in YNNR KE, C.-Q., 2011, Regional Environmental Change, 11, 161-173

  7. Valuing eco-services 生态系统服务功能估算的背景 上世纪70年代(Gosselink, J. G., Odum, E. P. and Pope, R. M. 1974. Meo, M.,et al 1975. ) Costanza, 1997的生态系统评估: 17项生态服务功能,包括气体调节、干扰调节、废弃物处理、养分循环等等 地球生态系统生态服务功能总价:33万亿美元 其中63%来自海洋(20.9万亿美元) 其中10.6万亿来自海岸带

  8. Spartina flat

  9. Reclamation

  10. Coastal wetland eco-services Provisioning services Regulating services Heay metal absorbance Nutrient absorbance (N, P) Coastal zone robustness Atmosphere regulation Cultural services Supporting services

  11. Provisioning services Vpro=2439~4146 $/hm2/yr

  12. N, P absorbance through sediments

  13. N, P absorbance flux (g/m2/yr)

  14. N, P absorbance through vegetation (Spartina alterniflora) 互花米草植被 根部对TN的吸收是12.99~18.05 g/m2/yr, 地上部分对TN的吸收是16~27.87 g/m2/yr; 根部对TP的吸收是1.68~1.98 g/m2/yr, 地上部分对TP的吸收是3.39~6.08 g/m2/yr。 植被对TN的吸收总量是28.99~45.92 g/m2/yr, 对TP吸收的总量是5.08~8.07 g/m2/yr。

  15. Valuing N, P absorbance Vnu=∑(Fi×Ti) 其中Vnu是湿地吸收富营养物的经济价值,单位是:$/hm2/yr Fi是湿地吸收富营养物i的通量,单位是g/hm2/yr Ti是处理富营养物i的平均成本,单位是 $/g 互花米草湿地对N、P吸收的总的经济价值是360~4366 $/ hm2/yr

  16. Coastal zone robustness

  17. Coastal zone robustness 114.6×7560×2.5= 2,165,940 RMB

  18. Atmosphere regulation 植被每生产1 g干物质可以吸收固定CO21.63 g,同时释放1.19 g O2 固定二氧化碳的净价值为1405 $/hm2/yr~1852 $ /hm2/yr 释放氧气的经济价值是2712 $/hm2/yr~3608 $/hm2/yr 调节大气的总经济价值Vreg是4117~5460 $/ hm2/yr。

  19. Direct and indirect market value Provisioning: 20,000~34,000 RMB /ha•yr Heavy metal absorbance: 1660~14700 RMB/ ha•yr Nutrient absorbance: 2,960~35,800 RMB/ ha•yr Coastal zone robustness: 5,730~11,460 RMB/ha•yr Atmosphere regulation: 33,760~44,760 RMB/ ha•yr TEV: (2012): 2,899,058 RMB / ha (Inflation rate:0.4, discount rate: 0.5 )

  20. Challenges: If the value is true, do we need to protect the coastal wetland ecosystem? If the value is not true, what if missing?

  21. Non-market value Original non-market value:CVM Related oefficient with the ecosystem scarcity: a Non-market value(a=0.2):aK=¥579,811.6/ha A. Kontogianni, 2012, Ecological Economics

  22. Total value of eco-services TV=Market V (K)+Non-market V (aK) =2,899,058+579,811.6= 3,478,870 RMB/ha V p U Is the problem sorted out?

  23. Critical Threshold Supply B Supply A $ Marginal Value TEV Flow of Services Limburge et al. (Limburge et al. 2002)

  24. A. Smooth response function Value of service B. Catastrophic response function Value of avoiding threshold C. Tracking the approach to catastrophic threshold Stress K.E. Limburg et al. 2002

  25. Valuing scarcities of the wetland eco-services – a conceptual model V u p V:TV K:Market V ak:Non-market V p:Critical Threshold

  26. Conclusion The value of ecosystem’s scarcity is dynamic. It positively related to the scarcity of coastal wetland ecosystem. Valuing the scarcity of coastal wetland properly may assist the smart use of coastal resources. For instance, it may help to identify the threshould of different exploitation activities. Coastal wetland’s critical threshould (p)need to be further discussed.