Aggression Psychology BY Dr. RamezBedwani
Outcomes • By the end of the lecture ,students will be acquainted by what is meant by aggression , external and personal factors causing aggression , types and how to prevent aggression
Human Aggression • While it has a biological basis, human aggression is primarily under the control of social factors • Hostile aggression is a behaviour intended to injure another person either physically or verbally or to destroy property
A-External stresses & social factors: • Although aggression is considered as basic instinct, certain stresses and stimuli are known to provoke aggression such as: 1- Intense frustration, especially when it is massive and unexpected 2-Insults and Direct provocation from others, such as calling one bad names in public 3-Unpleasant environmental conditions such as high temperature, intense noise and crowding
4-Oppression from unjust authority such as events in political conflict 5- Exposure to aggressivemodelscan make other persons behave in a violent manner. Prolonged exposure to media charged with violence may contribute with other factors to the occurrence of overt aggression
6-Crowdingincrease potential violence 7-Socioeconomic factors like poverty and disruption of family structure may be correlated with high aggression 8-Availability of weapons as in upper Egypt in certain time may facilitate aggressive behaviour
B-Personal factors : 1- Heightened physiological arousal: some persons has low tolerance threshold and are easily provoked. 2- Degree of sexual arousal either low or high(both could be responsible for provocation of aggression) 3-Exposure to physical or psychological pain would possibly facilitate aggression
Types of aggression There are many approaches to typify aggression: A-Aggression could be verbal or physical B-It could also be active like insults or even homicide or passiveneglect and negativism C- It could be direct (frank overt inflicting physical pain)or indirect(through hindering one to get his right)
D-It could also be: i- Hostile aggressionis any form of behavior directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated is such treatment ii- Instrumental aggression • The individual uses aggression as a way of satisfying some other motive. • For example a person may use threats to force others to comply with his or her wishes; or a child may use aggression as a way of gaining attention from others
Prevention and control of aggression I- Prophylactic: prevent as much as possible, the above mentioned cases (particularly external and social causes) 2- Catharsis: give a chance for liberating the energy enclosed in aggression in some acceptable outlet like sport or symbolic signal like knocking the table 3- Training social skills: can often be promising approach to reduction of human violence
4- Biological factors are dealt with according to their nature: -For instance if the threshold is lowered by drug abuse treating & drug withdrawal -Some psychiatric illness like paranoid schizophrenia or mania are known to be associated with aggression. Proper treatment of the disease is the best way of control the symptom (etc.)
5-Punishment: Punishment is not always preventive for the next aggressive act unless it is appropriate, adequate, clear cut(the aggression is almost sure of receiving it), immediately follows the aggressive behavior as soon as possible. This would include behaviour modification (Iearning) rather than revenge or sadism.
Quiz • How to prevent and control aggression?