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Aggression PowerPoint Presentation

Aggression

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Aggression

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  1. Aggression Chapter 8

  2. Aggression!!! What is aggression? Motivation Characteristics of Targets Situational Effects on Aggression Reducing Aggressive Behavior

  3. What is Aggression? • Definition: • Any act done with intent to harm • Physically, • Psychologically, or • Socially

  4. Physical Aggression

  5. Forms of Aggressive Behavior Physical: Physical: • Pushing • Hitting • Slapping • Biting • Kicking • Hair-pulling • Stabbing • Shooting

  6. Verbal Aggression

  7. Verbal Aggression • Threatening • Intimidating • Malicious teasing • Taunting • Name-calling • Bullying

  8. Social Aggression

  9. Social Aggression • Gossip • Rumors • Rejection • Exclusion • Glaring • Ignoring • Turn away • Pointing

  10. Motivation--Theories 1) Biological view-Instincts 2) Frustration-Aggression 3) Aversive Emotional Arousal 4) Social Learning

  11. 1) Biological View Naturalinstinct for survival 1) Species protect resources 2) Strongest animals survive & mate 3) Aggressive parents protect offspring

  12. Instinctual AggressionCrickets

  13. 2) Frustration-Aggression Frustration: Blocked goal-directed activity 1. Every frustration leads to aggression 2. Every aggressive act is due to frustration

  14. 3) Aversive Emotional Arousal • Accidents, Insults, & Attacks-> aversive affect (negative emotions) • Anger • People seek to reduce or eliminate aversive affect

  15. 4) Social Learning • Two processes: • Reinforcement • Imitation

  16. Social Learning Theory • Reinforcement • Example: Father buys son ice cream after son wins a fight with another child • Imitation • Example: “Bobo doll” experiment

  17. Characteristics of Targets • Gender • Race/Ethnicity • Age • Retaliatory Capacity • Deservingness

  18. Children • Physically aggressive behavior common among small children • Push • Bite • Hit • Pull hair

  19. Gender Differences • 80+% of homicides committed by men • Most victims are men • Escalation of disagreement over status

  20. Gender Differences

  21. ***Situational Effects • Reinforcements (rewards) 1) Direct material benefits 2) Social approval 3) Attention

  22. Situational Effects • Modeling: Observing & imitating • 3 types of information: 1) Specific aggressive acts possible 2) Appropriateness of aggression 3) Consequences of aggression

  23. Situational Effects • Norms • Negative norm of reciprocity • Retaliation proportionate to provocation

  24. Situational Effects • Environmental Cues • Lowers inhibitions • Intensify arousal • Weapons effect • Frustrated people respond more aggressively in presence of a gun

  25. Reducing Aggressive Behavior 1) Reducing Frustration • Adequate resources 2) Punishment • Swift • Severe • Certain 3) Non-aggressive Models 4) Catharsis= Watching or engaging in acceptable aggression (sports, video games)

  26. More Hugging! Peace, Joy, Love!