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Models of Human Development

Models of Human Development

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Models of Human Development

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    1. Models of Human Development Conceptual Approaches and Leading Theories

    2. Study of Human Development Human development may be studied from a variety of theoretical viewpoints, each of which has implications for the motor development and movement education of infants, children, adolescents and adults. (Gallahue & Ozman, 1998, p.2)

    3. Theoretical Approaches

    4. Psychoanalytic Theory Studied personality and abnormal functioning in adults Psychosexual stages of development are related to the various erogenous zones of the body The Ego mediates between the Id and the Superego

    5. Ericksons Psychosocial Theory Psychosocial development is influenced by motor development and movement education throughout the life span.

    6. Gesells Maturational Theory Suggested that development results from inborn biological processes Documented sequential developmental milestones for infant and early childhood rudimentary behaviors There is a universal sequence of infant movement skill acquisition

    7. Havighursts Developmental Tasks Successful development requires the mastery of a series of tasks arising from physical maturation and cultural expectations.

    8. Piagets Cognitive Theory Higher cognitive structures are formulated through the processes of accommodation and assimilation, both which rely on self-discovery through movement and play activity.

    9. Conceptual Viewpoints

    10. Thelens Dynamic Systems Theory Perceptual, cognitive, neuromuscular and musculoskeletal subsystems are important in motor development. Kinematics and EMG data simultaneously measure the role of neuromuscular excitation in infant behavior. Motor development is the result of a self-organizing interactive process. Infants explore their perceptual and biomechanical limits in adaptive play.

    11. Lewins Life Space Life space accounts for all the influences on a childs behavior at a given point of time.

    12. Bronfenbrenners Ecology Theory Development occurs within a broad range of environmental contexts. (Gallahue & Ozmun, 1998, p.33)

    13. Ericksons Psychosocial Stages

    14. Piagets Cognitive Phases

    15. Piagets Sensorimotor Phase (Birth to 2 years) Use of reflexes (Birth to 2 years) Recognition of stimulus (Birth to 3 months) Infant tries to create state of object permanence (3 to 9 months) Accommodation occurs as a result of experimentation (8 to 12 months) Invention of new actions through mental combinations (12 to 24 months)

    16. Piagets Preoperational Phase (2 to 7 years) First beginnings of cognition occur Child must rely physical activity to mentally manipulate objects Language replaces physical activity as primary facilitator of learning Child is egocentric (self-centered) Conservation of quantity is developed Increase in symbolic thinking

    17. Concrete Operations Phase (7 to 11 years) During the concrete operational thought phase perceptions are more accurate. Child understands changes in shape, order, position and number. Reversibility established.

    18. Formal Operations Phase (Older than 11years) Childhood ends and adolescence begins as the youth enters the world of ideas, systematic problem solving and abstract thinking.

    19. Models of Human Development Discussion: Compare cognitive, affective and motor development characteristics of a young child (ages 2 to 6) to an older child (ages 6 to 10) participating a specific developmental movement program. Use the theorists to support your arguments.