1 / 42

Hydraulic Fracturing

Hydraulic Fracturing. Overview. The Fundamentals Horizontal Drilling Hydraulic Fracturing Water Management Produced Water Baseline Sampling Disclosure Questions and Answers. The Fundamentals. Definition. The use of fluids to create a crack by hydraulic pressure

Télécharger la présentation

Hydraulic Fracturing

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Hydraulic Fracturing

  2. Overview • The Fundamentals • Horizontal Drilling • Hydraulic Fracturing • Water Management • Produced Water • Baseline Sampling • Disclosure • Questions and Answers

  3. The Fundamentals

  4. Definition • The use of fluids to create a crack by hydraulic pressure • The continued injection of fluids into the created crack fracture to make it grow larger • The placement of small granular solids into the crack to ensure the crack remains open after the hydraulic pressure is no longer applied

  5. Why HF a Well? • Increase the Rate at which the well is capable of producing oil or gas • Most unconventional formations Require hydraulic fracturing to be economic • Does not increase total Reserves

  6. Width of a human hair 100 µm Why HF a Well? Electronic Microscope Image of Rock

  7. Fractured Contact

  8. “HydraFrac” Process • July of 1947 - Stanolind Oil and Gas • 1st Job: Klepper No. 1 gelled kerosene/gasoline mix • Hugoton Gas Field, Kansas • Late 1948 - Patent issued, 23 wells H.F. before commercial application began • In 1949, The Halliburton Oil Well Cementing Co. was granted an exclusive license to pump the new “Hydrafrac” process • 332 wells were treated first 12 months • 75% success rate

  9. Drilling

  10. Drilling Distance Aquifer 400-800 ft. Wells Fargo Center ~700 ft 7000 ft.

  11. Casing • Multiple layers surrounding the aquifer • Cement • Conductor Casing • Cement • Surface Casing • Drilling Mud/Cement • Production Casing • Production Tubing

  12. Surface Casing • Purpose • Protect ground water • Provide stable wellbore during drilling operation • Provide well control during drilling • Depth Requirements • Set by State and BLM regulations • Extends below the aquifer • Cement Helps • Protect casing from corrosion • Provide zonal isolation • Support casing in wellbore

  13. Production Casing • Purpose • Provide zonal isolation • Provide well control • Well path to productive intervals • Cement Requirements • Set by State regulations • Set by BLM regulations • Operator requirements • Cement Helps • Protect casing from corrosion • Support casing in wellbore

  14. Drilling Depths (feet) • DJ Basin: 7,000-8,000 • Piceance Valley: 7000 • Piceance Mesa: 12,000 • Raton Basin: 2,000

  15. Hydraulic Fracturing

  16. HF Fluids

  17. HF Fluids

  18. HF Fluids • Depending on the fluid system being pumped various additives are used: • Additives are transported in concentrated form • Typically injected at less than 3 gallons per 1,000 gal of water (0.3%) • All additive injection rates are controlled. • The purpose of any additive is to help improve the overall process Frac Fluids

  19. Water Management

  20. Sources of Water • Use of Water Must be Legally Allowed • Municipal lease/purchase (industrial uses) • Changed water rights (e.g. temp agricultural to industrial) • Fully consumed water (leased/purchase effluent) • Produced water (non-trib or decreed trib & augmented) • Non-tributary (landowner & operator agreement) Source - COGCC

  21. Amount of Water • The amount of water needed depends on the geologic basin, the formation, and the well. • Raton Basin, approximately 50,000 to 300,000 gallons may be for a shallow coalbed methane well • Piceance Basin, approximately 800,000 to 2 million gallons for a deeper tight sand gas well. • DJ Basin, approximately 250,000 gallons may be used to frac a vertical well, while up to 5 million gallons may be used to frac a horizontal well. Source - COGCC

  22. Colorado Water Use Source: USGS 2005 Estimated Withdrawals and Use of Water in Colorado, 2005

  23. Colorado Water Use

  24. Estimated Water Use • 2015: 0.10% of total water use One Acre Foot is Approximately 326,000 Gallons Source: COGCC

  25. Water Requirements • Natural gas has one of the lowest water usage rates per MMBTU

  26. Produced Water

  27. Produced & Flowback • Produced water is naturally-occurring (“connate”) water that exists in the formation and is “produced” along with hydrocarbons • Flowback water is recovered water from HF use that returns to the surface

  28. Disposal • 60% Underground Injection Wells • 20% Lined Open-Air Pits • 20% Surface Discharge: rivers and streams, dirt roads

  29. Disposal Regulation • Rule 907 - Management of Exploration and Production (E&P) Waste • Rule 908 - E&P Waste Management Facilities Regulation • Rule 325 - Underground Injection of Water

  30. Baseline Water Sampling

  31. Concept • Pre and Post-drilling water samples taken around new well starts • Increased transparency & accountability for industry • Allows public to search all public records on COGCC • Analytical results on a timely basis

  32. Program • COGA, Hickenlooper, Dept. of Natural Resources, and COGCC • 93% Participation

  33. Program Details • Samples collected on new wells and new expansions • In accordance with COGCC Sampling and Analysis Plan • Post-Drilling sampling conducted within 1-3 years • ½ mile radius of well pad surface location • Sample collected within 48 hours of notified complaint

  34. Program Details Cont. • Samples sent to certified lab • Landowners notified of results along with education materials • Samples available to public via database on COGCC website • Annual review of program implementation and results

  35. HF Disclosure Registry

  36. New HF Rule • Requires public disclosure of HF chemicals using FracFocus.org • Well-by-well Basis • Trade Secret Protection • File with COGCC • 48 hour advance notice from Operator to the Commission is required of intention to hydraulically fracture a well.

  37. Initiated by the Ground Water Protection Council (GWPC) and Interstate Oil & Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) Website Development Committee: Industry, State, & GWPC Industry has unanimously supported the Registry ANGA (American Natural Gas Alliance) AXPC (American Exploration & Production Companies) API (American Petroleum Institute) IPAA (Independent Petroleum Association of America) NGSA (Natural Gas Supply Association) INGAA (Interstate Natural Gas Association of America) HF Disclosure Registry

  38. Concept of the Registry • Web interface where operators voluntarily register HF chemicals • Timely, consistent data • Centralized upload area for operators • Secure information • Web interface where public finds more information on the HF process • Well site search tool • Allow public to search for individual HF wells • Query by state, county, API number, production type, lease name or well number • From 2011 forward

  39. FracFocus Website http://fracfocus.brocodev.com/hydraulic-fracturing-process http://fracfocus.brocodev.com/

  40. Improved Search

  41. HF Disclosure Example

  42. Questions? Thank you for your interest in Colorado’s oil and gas industry! www.coga.org

More Related