1 / 17

Hydraulic Fracturing ( Fracking )

Hydraulic Fracturing ( Fracking ). Elizabeth Salois. What is Fracking ?. Fracking  hydraulic fracturing Process of extracting natural gas from shale rock layers from deep within the earth

Télécharger la présentation

Hydraulic Fracturing ( Fracking )

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking) Elizabeth Salois

  2. What is Fracking? • Fracking hydraulic fracturing • Process of extracting natural gas from shale rock layers from deep within the earth • There are now two types of drilling, horizontal and traditional verticalinjects fluids into shale area • After this 1 month process, the well is closed with cement to “ensure groundwater protection”

  3. What chemicals are used in the process? • The gas companies use a number of different chemicals in order to frack(estimated at 750 kinds) including: • Methanol • Isopropyl alcohol • 2-butoxyethanol • Ethylene glycol • Benzene or lead • Etc.

  4. What are the effects of some of these chemicals? • Methanol • produced in catalytic industrial process directly from carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen • Simplest alcohol and is a flammable liquid • Can be used as antifreeze, solvent, fuel, etc. • Isopropyl alcohol • Can dissolve ethyl cellulose, oils, gums, and natural resins • Also colorless and flammable • Can be separated from water solutions by adding salts such as sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, etc. • Benzene • Natural constituent of crude oil and is a basic petrochemical (found in coal tar and petroleum) • Has a high octane number • Natural carcinogen • Small amounts are used to make: rubbers, lubricants, dyes, detergents, drugs, explosives, and pesticides

  5. Why do companies do this? • Oil companies use hydraulic fracturing in order to: • Increase/restore fluids such as petroleum, water, natural gas from reservoirs • Enables production of natural gas and oil from rock formations below earth’s surface • Provides natural gas within US borders • Other uses • Stimulate groundwater wells • Dispose of waste by injection into deep rock formations • For heat extraction to produce electricity

  6. Places affected by fracking • Main areas: • Texas • Pennsylvania • West Virginia • Michigan • Roughly half of North Dakota • As well as a number of perspective areas like New York

  7. Should we be concerned? • Massachusetts has also become an area of question when it comes to drilling gas shales have been found around Western Massachusetts • Part of Massachusetts contains a formation known as the Harford Basin which is 34 miles long and 15 varies from 3-15 miles wide surrounds Springfield • Pioneer Valley Green-Rainbow Party has shown concern for future drilling and wants to make sure it meets regulations and is safe. • Geologists say that the Basin is not in the right state to be extracting gas from but may become so in the near future.

  8. Fracking Across the US • http://earthjustice.org/features/campaigns/fracking-across-the-united-states

  9. Hopewell Township, PA • One of the biggest victims of fracking • March 31, 2010 100-by-800 foot impoundment filled with wastewater from fracturing exploded near Hopewell • Residents smelled strong gas odors which then set nearby equipment on fire • Between Dec.5-6, 2009, a pit containing 750,000 gallons of fresh water mixed with wastewater overflowed into a small tributary • May 2009pipe with wastewater leaked about 5,000 gallons into Cross Creek Lake • August 2010EPA fined Atlas Resources $97,350 for December spill of 2009, which the company failed to report

  10. What are the environmental effects of fracking? • Stress on surface and ground water supplies from withdrawing large amounts of water • Contamination of underground sources of drinking water due to faulty well construction • Adverse impacts from discharges into surface waters from disposal into underground injection wells • Air pollution from the release of volatile organic chemicals • Possible earthquakes

  11. What are the health effects of hydraulic fracturing? • Respiratory problems • Neurological problems • Skin rashes • Digestive issues • Linked to breast cancer

  12. “Fracking Hell: The Untold Story” • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dEB_Wwe-uBM

  13. How do we regulate hydraulic fracturing? • Much of the regulation is mandated state-by-state • However, there are federal regulations in place: • EPA requires manufacturers and processors of the additives to disclose the chemicals they are using • If the company doesn’t disclose information about the chemicals they are using, they have to provide a reason why. • Must ensure proper disposal of waste and correct cementing and closing of the wells/drilling sites

  14. “Victims of Fracking” • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cKpv_LaSQVY

  15. “Gasland” • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dZe1AeH0Qz8

  16. Works Cited: • http://earthjustice.org/features/campaigns/down-to-earth-the-dark-side-of-the-fracking-boom • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dZe1AeH0Qz8 • http://8020vision.com/2011/04/17/congress-releases-report-on-toxic-chemicals-used-in-fracking/ • http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/27/us/27gas.html?_r=3&pagewanted=1&hpw& • http://www.policymic.com/articles/6465/fracking-exposed-shocking-new-report-links-drilling-with-breast-cancer-and-women-s-violence • http://www.bostonglobe.com/lifestyle/health-wellness/2012/12/12/group-explores-possibility-fracking-massachusetts-federal-study-hints-limited-shale-gas-deposits/ueDJlzRbDH42pPnLcP3KMO/story.html

More Related