210 likes | 653 Vues
Hydraulic Fracturing. Kevin Naderi, Kyle Whitlow, Kevin McGinn. Outline. What is Hydraulic Fracturing? How is it done? What kinds of services does Schlumberger provide? What are some of the drawbacks? Dangers? Environmental concerns?. Background.
E N D
Hydraulic Fracturing Kevin Naderi, Kyle Whitlow, Kevin McGinn
Outline • What is Hydraulic Fracturing? How is it done? • What kinds of services does Schlumberger provide? • What are some of the drawbacks? Dangers? Environmental concerns?
Background • Stimulation treatment used on oil/gas wells with low permeability reservoirs • Conceived in the 1860's • First used in modern form in 1998 • Traditional methods include "plug and perf" and "sliding sleeve" • Stages are isolated and perforated • fluids and proppants are injected to fracture the formation • After all stages are completed, production begins
Staged Fracturing & Completion Services • Fracture with Coiled Tubing services • AbrasiFRAC, CoilFRAC, ThorFRAC • Wireline-enabled perforating and fracturing • PerfFRAC • Fiber-based fracturing services • StimMORE, FirberFRAC • Multistage Stimulation systems • Falcon, Kickstart, Copperhead, Diamondback
Drawbacks, Dangers, and Environmental Concerns • Drilling process • Tremendous stress (up to 7.5 tons per sq. in.) • Friction heat • Rock chips and dust • Could seal off the cracks
Drawbacks, Dangers, and Environmental Concerns • Additional Risks • Small seismic events (2’s on the Richter scale) • Pollution • PAH’s, methanol, hydrochloric acid, as well as others • Materials left behind • Most fracturing liquid is pumped out • Proppants
Drawbacks, Dangers, and Environmental Concerns • Affects on drinking water • Some reservoirs near USDW’s • No conclusive evidence of water quality degradation (EPA) • Clouding, sediments, particles, odors, and methane in some cases • Radioactive brine • Can be done very safely • Proper techniques and extensive monitoring
Sources • http://www.slb.com/services/completions/stimulation/reservoir/contact.aspx • http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/publications/EPreports/Shale_Gas_Primer_2009.pdf • http://www.epa.gov/hfstudy/cross-linkandlineargelcomposition.pdf • http://blogs.cdc.gov/niosh-science-blog/2012/05/silica-fracking/