Dynamics – how loudly or softly you should play Piano= Soft Mezzopiano = Medium Soft Mezzoforte = Medium Loud Forte=Loud Crescendo (cresc.) Means to get louder Diminuendo (dim) means to getsofter Pianissimo= Very Soft Fortissimo= Very Loud
Tempo – how fast or slow a piece is to be played, measured in bpmor beats per minute Grave = Extremely Slow Largo = Very Slow Adagio = Slow Moderato = Moderate Speed Andante = Walking Speed Allegro = Fast and joyful Vivo / Vivace = Very Fast Accelerando means to get faster Ritardandomeans to get slower
Rhythm = Four beats in = one beat in = Two beats in = half a beat in = Three beats in = The “dot of prolongation adds half of the note value to the primary note
Sixteenth Notes Counted One-e-and-a Counted One-e-a Counted One-and-a Counted One-a Counted One-e-and Counted One-e
Tuplets – a certain number of notes in one beat. Triplet = 3 notes in one beat in Quintuplet = 5 notes in one beat in Septuplet = 7 notes in one beat in
Rests – a silence takes the place of a note Quarter rest = 1 beat Eighth rest = ½ beat Half rest = 2 beats 16 rest = ¼ beat Whole rest = 4 beats Multiple measure rest (15)
Syncopation – when the offbeats(off-beats are accented) The Entertainer – Ragtime music features many accented offbeats.
Simple Meter = the number of beats in a measure which note gets one beat Cut time means there are two beats per measure and a half note gets a beat Marches are often in cut time 4 beats per measure a quarter note gets one beat Common time = 4/4 Three beats per measure a quarter notes gets a beat A Waltz is in ¾ time Five beats per measure a quarter note gets a beat
Compound Meter = the number of beats in a measure which note gets one beat 6 beats per measure an eighth note gets a beat
Musical Symbols Coda – an added ending on a piece of music Repeat sign Accent – emphasize this note Segno, or Italian for sign D.S. – Dal Segno = back to the sign D.C. – Da Capo = back to the beginning Fermata – hold this note until the conductor cuts you off Caesura – a complete stop in a piece of music
Musical Symbols A natural means to play the Regular note, it gets rid of A sharp or a flat Staccato notes are played short and detatched Ex. A sharp raises a note a half step Ex. A flat lowers a note a half step
Tutti – everyone plays Unison – many instruments playing the same notes Enharmonic – two different names for the same note Interval – the distance between two notes Half step – the distance from a note to it’s “sharp” (Ex. C to C#). Whole step – two half steps Ostinato – a repeated musical passage Ledger lines – notes played outside the staff Chromatic Scale – a scale with all half steps Ritardando – slowing down Simile – play the notes the same as before Sforzando – a type of harsh accent Scale – an ascending series of seven notes in the pattern WWHWWWH Musical Terms
Enharmonics – two different names for the same pitch Db = ? A# = ? G# = ? Gb = ? Bb = ? F# = ?
Key Signatures Key of _____ Key of _____ Key of _____ Key of _____ Key of _____ Key of _____
Rules – Flats and Sharps Once a note is flat or sharp in a measure it stays flat or sharp. A natural will cancel out a previous flat or sharp in a measure. The bar line cancels out any sharps or flats from the previous measure. What is the name of the last note? What is the name of the last note? What is the name of the last note?